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BJT Small-Signal Analysis

Contents

Common-Emitter fixed-bias configuration


Voltage divider bias
CE Emitter bias
Emitter-follower configuration
Common-base configuration
Collector-feedback configuration
Hybrid equivalent circuit and model

BJTSmallSignalAnalysis
retransistormodelemploysadiodeandcontrolledcurrent
sourcetoduplicatethebehaviorofatransistorintheregion
ofinterest.
Thereandhybridmodelswillbeusedtoanalyzesmall
signalACanalysisofstandardtransistornetwork
configurations.
Ex:Commonbase,commonemitterandcommoncollector
configurations.
Thenetworkanalyzedrepresentthemajorityofthose
appearinginpracticetoday.

ACequivalentofanetworkisobtainedby:
1. SettingallDCsourcestozero
2. Replacingallcapacitorsbys/cequiv.
3. Redrawthenetworkinmoreconvenientand
logicalform

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

Theinput(Vi)isappliedtothebaseandtheoutput(Vo)isfromthecollector.
TheCommonEmitterischaracterizedashavinghighinputimpedanceandlowoutput
impedancewithahighvoltageandcurrentgain.

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

RemovingDCeffectsofVCCandCapacitors

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

reModel

Determine,re,andro:
andro:lookinthespecificationsheetforthetransistorortestthetransistorusinga
curvetracer.
26mV
re:calculatereusingdcanalysis:
r
e

IE

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

ImpedanceCalculations

Input Impedance:

OutputImpedance:

Zi R B || re

Zo R C || rO

Zi re

Zo Rc

R B 10 re

ro 10 Rc


VoltageGain(Av):

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

GainCalculations

Av

Vo
(R || r )
C o
Vi
re

Av
CurrentGain(Ai):

RC
re

ro 10R C

Io
R B ro
Ai
I i (ro R C )(R B re )

Ai
CurrentGainfromVoltageGain:

ro 10R C , R B 10 re

Zi
A i A v
RC

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

VoltageGain
VO
Av
Vi
VO I b (R C || ro )
Vi I bre
I b (R C || ro )
Av
I bre
-

(R C || ro )
re

if ro or 10R C

RC
Av
re

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

Currentgain

The current gain is determined by applying the


current - divider rule to the input and output circuits
r I
I
r
I o o b and o o
ro R C
I b ro R C
Ib

R B Ii
I
RB
and b
R B re
I i R B re

I o I o I b ro


A i
I i I b I i ro R C
I
roR B
Ai o
I i ro R C R B re
if ro 10R C and R B 10re ,
Ai

Io
r R
o B
I i ro R B

or we can use this equation too


A i A v

Zi
RC

RB

R B re

CommonEmitter(CE)FixedBiasConfiguration

PhaseRelationship

Thephaserelationshipbetweeninputandoutputis180degrees.Thenegativesignusedin
thevoltagegainformulasindicatestheinversion.

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

reModel

Youstillneedtodetermine,re,andro.

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

ImpedanceCalculations

Input Impedance:

OutputImpedance:

R1R2
R R1 || R2
R1 R2

Zo RC || ro

Zi R || re

Zo RC

ro 10RC

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

GainCalculations
VoltageGain(Av):

Vo R C || ro
Av

Vi
re

Vo
RC
Av

Vi
re

ro 10R C

Io
R
Ai
I i R re

ro 10R C

CurrentGain(Ai):

Io
R ro
Ai
I i (ro R C )(R re )
CurrentGainfromVoltageGain:

Ai

Io

Ii

ro 10R C , R 10 re

A i A v

Zi
RC

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

VoltageGain
VO ( I b )(R C || ro )
Vi
Ib
re
Vi
(R C || ro )
Vo
re
(R C || ro )
Av
re
if ro or 10R C

RC
Av
re

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

Currentgain
since the network is so similar to that common
- emitter fixed - bias configuration, except for
the R' , the equation for the current gain will
have the same format.
R' R 1 || R 2 R B
Ai

Io
R' ro

Ii ro R C R're

for ro 10R C ,
Io
R' ro
Ai
Ii ro R're

R'
R're

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

And if R' 10 re ,
Io
R'
Ai

Ii
R'
Io
Ai

Ii
as an option
A i A V

Zi
RC

CEVoltageDividerBiasConfiguration

PhaseRelationship
ACEamplifierconfigurationwillalwayshaveaphaserelationshipbetweeninputand
outputis180degrees.ThisisindependentoftheDCbias.

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

UnbypassedRE

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

reModel

Againyouneedtodetermine,re.

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

ImpedanceCalculations

InputImpedance:

OutputImpedance:

Z b re ( 1)R E

Z b (re R E )
Zb R E

R E re

Zo R C

Zi R B || Z b

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

Definingtheinputimpedanceofatransistorwithan
unbypassedemitterresistor
Applying KVL to the input side :
Vi I bre I e R E
Vi I bre ( 1)I b R E
Vi
Zb
re ( 1)R E
Ib
since is normally greater than 1,
Z b re R E
since R E is much greater than re , eqn above can be reduced to
Z b R E

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

GainCalculations
VoltageGain(Av):

Vo
RC
Av

Vi
re R E

Vo
R C
Av

Vi
Zb

or

CurrentGain(Ai):

Vo
RC
Av

Vi
RE

Io
R B
Ai
Ii R B Zb

CurrentGainfromVoltageGain:

Zi
A i A v
RC

Z b (re R E )
Z b R E

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

VoltageGain
Ib

Vi
Zb

Vo I o R C I b R C
Vi
R C
Zb


AV

Vo R C

Vi
Zb

substituting Z b (re R E ) gives


AV

Vo
RC

Vi re R E

and for the approximation Z b R E


Vo R C
AV

Vi
RE

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

CurrentGain
The magnitude of R B is often too close to Z b to permit the approximation
I b I i . Applying the current - divider rule to the input circuit will result in :
Ib

R B Ii
R B Zb

Ib
RB

Ii R B Zb
I o I b
Io

Ib
Ai

Io Io I b
RB

Ii I b Ii
R B Zb

A i A v

Zi
RC

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration

PhaseRelationship
ACEamplifierconfigurationwillalwayshaveaphaserelationshipbetweeninputand
outputis180degrees.ThisisindependentoftheDCbias.

CEEmitterBiasConfiguration
BypassedRE

ThisisthesamecircuitastheCEfixedbiasconfigurationandthereforecanbesolved
usingthesameremodel.

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

YoumayrecognizethisastheCommonCollectorconfiguration.Indeedtheyarethesame
circuit.
Notetheinputisonthebaseandtheoutputisfromtheemitter.

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

reModel

Youstillneedtodetermineandre.

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

ImpedanceCalculations

InputImpedance:

Zi R B || Z b

Z b (re R E )

Z b re ( 1)R E

Z b R E

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

CalculationforthecurrentIe
Vi
Zb

Ib

I e ( 1)I b ( 1)

Vi
Zb

subtituting for Z b gives


( 1)Vi
Ie
re ( 1)R E
Vi

re

and

re

R
E

but ( 1)

( 1)
( 1)

Vi
Ie
re R E

re
re

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

ImpedanceCalculations(contd)
OutputImpedance:

Defining the output impedence for the emitter follower configuration


Ie

Vi
re R E

Zo R E || re

Zo re

R E r e

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

GainCalculations
VoltageGain(Av):

Vo
RE
Av

Vi R E re

Vo
Av
1
Vi

CurrentGain(Ai):

R B
Ai
R B Zb
CurrentGainfromVoltageGain:

Zi
A i A v
RE

R E re , R E re R E

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

Voltagegain
R E Vi
Vo
R E re
Vo
RE
Av

Vi R E re
R E usually much greater than re ,
R E re R E
Vo
Av
1
Vi

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

CurrentGain

R B Ii
Ib
R B Zb
Ib
RB

Ii
R B Zb
I o I e ( 1) I b
Io
( 1)
Ib
Ai

Io
I I
RB
o b ( 1)
Ii
I b Ii
R B Zb

since ( 1) ,

R B
R B Zb
Z
or A i A v i
RE

Ai

EmitterFollowerConfiguration

PhaseRelationship
ACCamplifierorEmitterFollowerconfigurationhasnophaseshiftbetweeninputand
output.

Vo

CommonBase(CB)Configuration

Theinput(Vi)isappliedtotheemitterandtheoutput(Vo)isfromthecollector.
TheCommonBaseischaracterizedashavinglowinputimpedanceandhighoutput
impedancewithacurrentgainlessthan1andaveryhighvoltagegain.

CommonBase(CB)Configuration

reModel

Youwillneedtodetermineandre.

CommonBase(CB)Configuration

ImpedanceCalculations

InputImpedance:

Zi R E || re

OutputImpedance:

Zo R C

CommonBase(CB)Configuration

GainCalculations

VoltageGain(Av):

Vo R C R C
Av

Vi
re
re
CurrentGain(Ai):

Io
A i 1
Ii

CommonBase(CB)Configuration

Voltage&Currentgain
Vo I o R C (I c R C )
I e R C
Vi
Ie
re
Vi
R C
Vo
re
Vo
RC RC
AV

Vi
re
re

Ie Ii
I o I e I i
Io
A i 1
Ii

CommonBase(CB)Configuration

PhaseRelationship

ACBamplifierconfigurationhasnophaseshiftbetweeninputandoutput.

Vo

CollectorDCFeedbackConfiguration

Thenetworkhasadcfeedbackresistorforincreasedstability,yetthecapacitorC3will
shiftportionsofthefeedbackresistancetotheinputandoutputsectionsofthenetwork
intheacdomain.TheportionofRFshiftedtotheinputoroutputsidewillbedetermined
bythedesiredacinputandoutputresistancelevels.

CollectorDCFeedbackConfiguration

ImpedanceCalculations

Substitutingthereequivalentcircuitintotheacequivalentnetwork
InputImpedance:

OutputImpedance:

Zi R F1 || re

Zo R C || R F2 || ro
Z o RC || RF 2

CollectorDCFeedbackConfiguration

VoltageGain
R' ro || R F2 || R C
Vo I b R'
Vi
Ib
re
Vi
Vo
R'
re
Vo
ro || R F2 || R C
Av

Vi
re
for ro 10R C ,
Vo
R F2 || R C
Av

Vi
re

CollectorDCFeedbackConfiguration

CurrentGain

For the input side


R F Ii
Ib
or
R F re

Ib
RF

I i R F re

and for the output side using R' ro || R F2


Io

R' I b
R' R C

or

Io
R'

I b R' R C

the current gain ,


Ai

Io Io I b
R'
R F1
.
.
I i I b Ii R' R C R F re

Ai

Io
R' R F1

Ii R' R C R F1 re

since R F1 is usually much larger than re , R F1 re R F1


Ai

Io
R F1 (ro || R F2 )

I i R F1 ro || R F2 R C

Ai

Io

Ii 1 R C
ro || R F2

or A i

Io
Z
A V i
Ii
RC

ApproximateHybridEquivalentCircuit
Thehparameterscanbederivedfromtheremodel:
hie=re
hfe=
hoe=1/ro

hib=re
hfb=

Thehparametersarealsofoundinthespecificationsheetforthetransistor.

ApproximateCommonEmitterEquivalentCircuit
Hybridequivalentmodel

reequivalentmodel

ApproximateCommonBaseEquivalentCircuit

Hybridequivalentmodel

reequivalentmodel

Troubleshooting
1. ChecktheDCbiasvoltagesifnotcorrectcheckpowersupply,resistors,transistor.
AlsochecktoensurethatthecouplingcapacitorbetweenamplifierstagesisOK.
2.ChecktheACvoltagesifnotcorrectchecktransistor,capacitorsandtheloading
effectofthenextstage.

PracticalApplications
AudioMixer
Preamplifier
RandomNoiseGenerator
SoundModulatedLightSource

Assignment#1
1.

2.

DerivetheformulasforZi,Zo,AVandAiinaCEEmitterBiasConfiguration
withunbypassedREandEmitterFollowerConfigulationwiththeeffectofro.
Showyourequivalentcircuitandcompletederivations.Youcanuse
approximationstosimplyyouranswers.
DeriveandsolveforthevalueofZi,Zo,AVandAi.

3.DetermineZi,Zo,AVandAi.