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SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND

AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

MA4702 - AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES II


Part I Structural Vibrations
1. Introduction to vibration systems;
2. Undamped vibration of SDOF systems;
3. Damped vibration of SDOF systems;
4. Vibration under harmonic excitations;
5. Vibration of unbalanced rotating shafts;
6. Vibration under base excitations;
7. Vibration of 2DOF systems;
8. Vibration absorber;
9. Vibration of general MDOF systems (n>2);
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

1/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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AN OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURAL VIBRATION


FAILURE

FAILURE
MALFUNCTION

ACTIVATORS

STRUCTURAL
VIBRATION
MONITORING

SOUND
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

2/38

DISCOMFORT

NOISE
Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF VIBRATIONS

1. Eurocopter AS350 Ground Resonant


Vibration Failure
2. Vibration Tail Flutter - F117 Crash
3. Tacoma Narrow Bridge Collapse
Wind Induced Torsional Vibration Failure
4. Transverse Vibration of a 4-Cylinder Engine
5. Torsional Vibration of a 4-Cylinder Engine
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

3/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

1. Eurocopter AS350 Ground Resonant


Vibration Failure
A spectacular self-destruction of a Eurocopter AS350
helicopter subjected to a so-called Groud resonant
Vibrations.

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

4/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

2. Tail Vibration Flutter - F117 Crash


Tail vibration flutter led to the build-up of excessive
vibration amplitude, resulting in the eventual breakup of the tail and the subsequent crash of the aircraft.

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

5/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

3. Tacoma Narrow Bridge Collapse


Wind Induced Torsional Vibration
Failure
Wind
induced large amplitude torsional vibrations led to

the total collapse of the bridge near Tacoma, Washington


on Nov. 7, 1940, 4 months after it was opened for traffic.

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

6/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

4. Transverse Vibration of a 4-Cylinder Engine


An engine is mounted on a cantilevered shaft. As the
engine operates, it generates sinusoidal excitation forces
which drive the engine block into Transverse Vibration.

Excitation

Shaft

Engine
Block
Vibration

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

7/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

5. Torsional Vibration of a 4-Cylinder Engine


As the engine operates, it generates sinusoidal excitation
torques/moments which drive the engine block into
Torsional Vibration.
Excitation

Engine
Block

Shaft
Vibration

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

8/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

How Do We Model Vibration ?


Vertical
vibration

c2

rough
carmassm

c1

9/38

k2

tyremassm1

refined

SDOF Spring-Mass System


Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

bodymassm2

k1

2-DOFs Spring-Mass System

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Further refined
Finite Element Modeling

Multiple Degrees of Freedom System


Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

10/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Degree Of Freedom (DOF):


The minimum number n, of independent coordinates
required to determine the positions of all parts of a
system at any instant of time, is called the Degrees of
Freedom (DOF) of the system.
For a simple pendulum,
given fixed length l, only
ONE independent
coordinate is required
to describe the position
of the pendulum at any
instant of time, hence,

DOF = n = 1
It is a 1 DOF system.
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

11/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

More Examples of 1 DOF (SDOF) Systems:

Space Needle

m
k

Cam
-Followe
r
System
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

12/38

Introduction to Vibration

Simplified
Vibration
Model

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Examples of 2 DOFs Systems:

Mass-spring 2DOF System


SliderPendulum

Marine Engine Propeller System


Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

13/38

Simplified 2DOF Torsional System

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

How many DOFs are there if an aircraft is considered


as a non-rigid, elastic body undergoes vibrational
motions?

Thousands or
even millions
of DOFs,
depending on
how precisely
we want to
model its
vibration
properties.
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

14/38

F117 Finite Element Model


for Vibration Analysis
Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Spring, Mass and Damping Elements:


c

k
m

(b) Single DOF model

k
m
c

Spring element with spring constant k


Mass element with mass m
Damping element with damping constant c

How do we identify / obtain values for these elements?


Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

15/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Determination of Stiffness / Spring Constant:


Bending Stiffness k:
c

k
m

(b) Single DOF model

F
k

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

16/38

For cantilevered beam,

Fl 3
(From Strength of

Materials course)
3E I
F
3E I
k 3

l
Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Also From Strength of Materials Course:


m

E,I

l/2

E,I

Area Moment of Inertia I:

F
m

Fl 3
F
48 E I

k
48 E I

l3

la

bh3
I
12

Fa l a
F
3E I l
k 2
2
3E I l

a l a
2

d1 d
2

d 24 d 14
I
64

These are the bending stiffness / spring constants.


Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

17/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
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More From Strength of Materials Torsional Stiffness kt:


Ml

GIP

GI p
M
kt

l
Polar Moment of Area Ip:

d1 d
2

d 24 d 14
IP
32

And More From Strength of Materials Axial Stiffness ka:

E, A
Fl
F
EA

m
ka
F
EA

l
l
ka
x Note: k and k have the SAME unit
a
m
of N/m but kt has a unit of N-m/rad
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

18/38

Introduction to Vibration

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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Springs in Parallel:
If n springs with spring constants k1, k2, , kn are in
parallel, the total equivalent spring constant k can be
obtained to become,

k k1 k 2 ... k n

F k1 k 2
F k1 k 2
F
k k1 k 2

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

19/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Springs in Series:
If n springs with spring
constants k1, k2, , kn are
in series, the total
equivalent spring constant
k can be obtained from the
following

1 1 1
1
...
k k1 k 2
kn

1 2

(1)

F
F
1
F k1 1
2
(2) F k 2 2
(3)
k1
k2
/ F 1 / k 1 / k1 1 / k 2
F / k1 F / k 2
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

20/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Ex 1 A hoisting
drum, carrying a steel
wire rope, is mounted
at the end of a
cantilever beam as
shown. Determine the
equivalent stiffness /
spring constant when
the mass undergoes
vertical vibration.
2
EA
E d / 2
ka

L
l
3
3 EI
3
E
a
t
/ 12
kb 3
L
b3
1 1 1
4b3
4l

3
k kb ka
Ea t Ed 2
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

21/38

kb

ka
m

E
a t 3d 2

k
2 3
3
4 d b lat

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Ex 2 Determine the torsional


stiffness / spring constant of
the steel propeller shaft shown
(G=81010 N/m2).

I, ktI

II, ktII

d 24 d 14
kt
, IP
l
32
GI p

G I PI
G d 24I d 14I
k tI

lI
32 l I

8 10 10 0.34 0.2 4
25525500 Nm / rad

32 2
G d 24II d 14II
8 1010 0.254 0.154
k tII

8901200 Nm / rad
32 3
32l II

They are in parallel, WHY?? kt ktI ktII 34426700 Nm / rad


Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

22/38

Introduction to Vibration

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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
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Spring, Mass and Damping Elements:


c

k
m

x
(b) Single DOF model

k
m
c

Spring element with spring constant k


Mass element with mass m
Damping element with damping constant c

How do we identify / obtain values for these elements?


Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

23/38

Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE

Determination of Mass / Inertia Element:


An object has a mass of m=25kg and a radius of gyration
r=0.2m. It is thus set up to undergo translational and
rotational vibrations as shown (a=0.3m). Determine the
vibration mass m and mass moment of inertia J.
(a) The vibration mass m in the
case of translational vibration is
just the total mass of the object:

m = 25 kg
(b) The vibration mass moment
of inertia in the case of rotational
vibration becomes:

J mr 2 ma 2 3.25 kgm 2

(a) Translational
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

24/38

Introduction to Vibration

(b) Rotational
Tuesday, July 28, 2015

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Translational and Rotational Masses Coupled:


J0
kt

Jeq

x
meq

The rack and pinion mechanism can be modeled as a single


degree of freedom system since the 2 coordinates used to
describe the positions of the system (x, ) are related by
x=R. It can be modeled as an SDOF translational system if
independent coordinate x is used and an SDOF
torsional/rotational system if is used.
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

25/38

Introduction to Vibration

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Principle of Equal Kinetic Energy:


(a) Equivalent Translational Mass meq:

1
1
1
2
2

m x J 0 m eq x 2

x R
2
2
2
2
J0

1
1
x
1
2
2

m x J 0 2 m eq x m eq m 2
R
2
2
2
R

(b) Equivalent rotational Mass Moment of Inertia Jeq:

1
1
2 1
2

m x J 0 J eq 2
x R
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2

m R J 0 J eq 2
2
2
2
J eq J 0 m R 2

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

26/38

Introduction to Vibration

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Ex 1 - Find the equivalent mass and stiffness of the system


shown in Figure 1.
x

k1

x
x1

J3

k3

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

meq

m1
O

k2

keq

x3
m2
27/38

a
b
b

x2
Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL
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From kinematics relationships, we have,

x
2b
b
x1 x , , x 2
x , x3 x
a
a
a
Kinetic Energy of the system,

1
1 2 1
2
2

KE m1 x1 J 3 m2 x 2
2
2
2
1
1
2
m1 x J 3
2
2

2
x 2 1

2bx
m2

a
2
a

2
J
1
1
1
4
b
2
2
2
3

m1 x
x m2
x
2
2 a2
2
a2
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

28/38

Introduction to Vibration

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Kinetic Energy of the equivalent system,

1
KE eq meq x 2
2
KE eq KE

2
J
1
1
1 3 2 1
4b 2
2
2
meq x m1 x
x m2
x
2
2
2
2 a2
2
a

J3

4b 2

meq m1

m2
a2
a2
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

29/38

Introduction to Vibration

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Principle of Equal Potential Energy:


Potential Energy of the system,

x
2b
b
x1 x , , x 2
x , x3 x
a
a
a
1
2 1
2 1
2
PE k1 x1 k 2 x 2 k 3 x3
2
2
2
2

1
1 b
2b
2 1
k1 x k 2
x k3 x
2
2 a
2 a
2
2
1
4b 2 1 b 2
2 1
k1 x k 2
x k3
x
2
2
2
2
2
a
a
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

30/38

Introduction to Vibration

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Potential Energy of the equivalent system,

1
PEeq k eq x 2
2
PEeq PE

2
1
1
1
4
b
2
2
2 1
k eq x k1 x k 2
x k3
2
2
2
2
a2

k eq k1
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

31/38

4b 2
a

k2

b2
a

k3

Introduction to Vibration

b2 2
x
a2

#
Tuesday, July 28, 2015

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Ex 2* A mass m is connected to a spring and a pulley and a


uniform disk through 2 rigid links as shown. Link 1 is attached
to the pulley and rotates together with the pulley. The disk
moves on a flat surface without slip. Find the equivalent mass
and stiffness if it is to be modeled as an SODF system.

Jp

Jd

meq ?? keq ??
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

32/38

Introduction to Vibration

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(a) Equivalent Mass:

Kinematic

p x / rp , v2 p l1 x l1 / rp

Relationships:

d v2 / rd x l1 / rp rd

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

33/38

Introduction to Vibration

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1 2 2
1 2 1
1
1
2 1
2
2
KE mx J p m1l1 p m2 v2 J d d md v2
2
3
2
2
2
2

p x / rp ,

v2 p l1 x l1 / rp

keq

meq

d v2 / rd x l1 / rp rd

2
2

1
1
x
1
l

1 2
2
2
KE mx J p m1l1 2 m2 12 x
2
3
2
rp
rp
2
1
l12 2 1
l12 2
1
J d 2 2 x md 2 x meq x 2
2 rp rd
2 rp
2

meq m
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

34/38

Jp
2
rp

m1l12
2
3 rp

m2l12
2
rp

Introduction to Vibration

J d l12
2 2
rp rd

md l12
2
rp

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

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(b) Equivalent Stiffness:

x
p
rp

x2 x A
x A p l1
Compression of k2:
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

35/38

x l1
x2 x A p l1
rp
Introduction to Vibration

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND


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Potential energy of the system:

1
1
2
PE
k1 x1
k 2 x22
2
2
2
1
1 x l1
2

k1 x
k2
2
2 rp

1
1
l12
2
2

k
x

k1 2 k 2 x
eq

2
2
r
p

Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

36/38

keq k1

Introduction to Vibration

l12

2
rp

k2

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

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SUMMARY
Models of Vibration Systems
Degree of Freedom (DOF)
Mass / Inertial Properties of Vibration Systems
Equivalent Mass based on Kinetic Energy
Stiffness Properties of Vibration Systems
Equivalent Stiffness based on Potential Energy
SDOF, 2DOFs and millions of DOFs and in fact, a
continuous practical structure has infinite DOFs in theory!
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

37/38

Introduction to Vibration

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Table of Spring Stiffness


k1

Parallel Springs

keq k1 k2

S/S Beam at centre


l/2

k2
k1

Series Springs

k2

1
1 1

keq k1 k2

keq

keq
Lecture Part 2 L1 & L2

38/38

Introduction to Vibration

l3

S/S Beam general


a
b

Cantilever @ tip

3 EI

48 EI

keq

3 EI a b
a 2b 2
Tuesday, July 28, 2015