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SI-5098 / TL-5098 / KL-5098

METODOLOGI PENELITIAN

PENELITIAN:
SUATU KEGIATAN ILMIAH

Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan


INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG

Todays TOPICS

Research as (part of) Scientific Endeavor


Research Basic

Research: the scientific approach


It (science) is not perfect. It is only a tool. But it is by
far the best tool we have, self-correcting, ongoing,
applicable to everything. It has two rules. First: there
are no sacred truths; all assumptions must be critically
examined; arguments from authority are worthless.
Second: whatever is inconsistent with the facts must
be discarded or revised.
Carl Sagan, in Cosmos, 1980

The Philosophy of Science

Francis Dane

SCIENCE is a systematic approach to the discovery of knowledge


based on a set of rules that defines what is acceptable knowledge.
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE is any set or rules that defines what is
acceptable knowledge.
There are disagreement amongst scientists.
Questions on Philosophy of Science:
1.
2.
3.
4.

When is something true?


How can we tell which one is better, if we have more than one explanation?
How can we put what we know into practice?
Why do we do it the we do? What justify our approach?

Theory, Paradigms & Hypothesis


Theory is a system of ideas for explaining something; the exposition

of the principles

Theory is used to facilitate prediction


Scientific theory must be testable empirically

Paradigm is a theoretical framework which includes a system by

which people view event; a logical system that encompasses


theories, concepts, models, procedures, and techniques

Hypothesis is a provisional explanation of anything; a statement

that describes the relationships between variables


should be testable
should be positive
should be expressed in clear and simple language

Epistemology and Ontology

Epistemology the theory of knowledge embedded in the


theoretical perspective (and thereby in the methodology)
Ontology claims and assumption that are made about the nature
of social reality, claims about what exist, what it looks like
ontological assumptions are concerned with what one believe
constitutes social reality.
Why do we study Epistemology and Ontology?

To understand he relationship of research key components


To avoid confusion when discussing the theoretical debates and
approaches
To be able to recognize others and defend ones position
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When is Something True?

The question of RATIONALE INFERENCE the difficulty inherent in


supporting any claim about the existence of a universal truth.

Solution to rationale inference problem must be based on FACTS


phenomenon of characteristics available to anyone who knows how to observe
them.

Summary of facts is called THEORY. Theories are made up of


CONCEPT abstraction that represents concrete PHENOMENA
Problem fitting FACTS into THEORY
INDUCTIVE REASONING a process of generalization: it involves
applying specific information to a general situation of future events
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Reasoning: nature of argument

argument
a

reason or a series of reasons to support an opinion or assertion

syllogism
consists

of (major) premise, (minor) premise, and conclusion

deductive argument (deduction)


a

conclusion is derived from a set of premise

if

the argument is valid, then the conclusion is 100% certain

it

is conclusive but not creative or imaginative

inductive argument (induction)


premises
the

are attempted to be derive from conclusions

conclusions are not certain (inconclusive)

The Hypothetico-Deductive Method


(example of research approach)

The seven steps


Observation
Preliminary Information Gathering
Theory Formulation
Hypothesizing
Further Scientific Data Collection
Data Analysis
Deduction

How can we tell which theory is better?

Theories must be tested against its other


CRITERIA FOR GROWTH finding standards that can be used to
decide one theory (explanation) is better than the other

To test a theory, we one must agree that it falls in the same


PARADIGM a logical system that encompasses theories,
concepts, models, procedures, and techniques group of related
theories.

Data against which the theory is being tested must be


OBJECTIVE observation can be replicated, can be observed by
more than one person under a variety of different conditions
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How can we put what we know into


practice?

There is no absolute truths. positivsm


The answer to that question is to PRAGMATIC ACTION determining
how we should go about practicing a scientific approach into practice .
To decide what action to take (which theory to be used) is determined
based on the consensus amongst researchers/ scientists or the
majority of them.
Here, the more researchers produced the same result, the higher the
agreement that the results are the fact that fit with the theory.
Yet, due to various reasons, the objectivity sometimes remains
arguable.
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How do we justify the scientific


approach?

Again, there is no absolute truths.


All and all, is having a consensus justified? If everyone is doing
the same thing, do you have to do the same, even if it would kill
you?
INTELLECTUAL HONESTY the ability of individual scientist to
justify the use if science itself.

To some extent this situation deals with the ethic of research

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Now

What do we know about research..?


And how that relates to scientific works?

What issues relevant to that matter?

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Nature of Research
Characteristic of scientific research
careful search, investigation,
seeking answer to (a) question (s)
systematically adds/contributes to knowledge
for PhDs, research makes an original (incremental) contribution

Research is a critical process of asking and


attempting to answer questions about the world.

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IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH PROBLEM


Hypothesis Formulation
Data Acquisition

Identification of Main Data

Analysis

RESEARCH
OUTPUT

Relevant Information Review

Expansion, Revision
New Theory
New Knowledge

RELEVANT THEORY
Established Body of Knowledge

Research Cycle System

Doing Research

Research can be done individually or in collaboration


It serves as means to satisfy

Researchers individual needs and/or curiosity (R for the sake of R)


Organizations need
Societys needs
Industrys needs and/or expectation

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University-Industry R&D collaboration


Innovation Agent Forms
INDIVIDUAL CREATION

EVALUATION

ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT

PHASE

PHASE

PHASE

In-house R&D

Existing-IA

IN-HOUSE

IN-HOUSE

EXPANDED

RESEARCHER

PROJECT

PROJECT

UNIVERSITY

IN-HOUSE

EXPANDED

RESEARCHER

PROJECT

PROJECT

Start-Up Company

Venture-IA

UNIVERSITY

IN-HOUSE

RESEARCHER

PROJECT

Consortium
UNIVERSITY

Consortium-IARESEARCHER

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Question

How do you position your self?


What is your objective or purpose of doing research?

Do your answers to those questions relevant to


academic or scientific community?

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WHAT IS RESEARCH?

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Research Basic

What is research, and where does it come from?


Research characteristics
Research project
Source of research projects
Element of research proposal

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Research is NOT

Research is not information gathering

Gathering information from text book and magazine


Does not contribute to new knowledge

Research is nit the transportation of facts

Simply transporting facts from one source to another isnt research


Although make existing knowledge more accessible, still nothing new

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Research is
. systematic process of collecting and
analyzing data/information in order to improve
our understanding of the phenomenon about
what we are concerned of interested.

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