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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING

PRE-QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE AND


PICTURE CARDS TO ENHANCE
VOCABULARY FOR READING
COMPREHENSION AMONG YEAR 2 PUPILS
By
Kavitha a/p Subramaniam
(M20141000086)
and
Sharmila Raj a/p Rajagopal
(M20141000150)

INTRODUCTIO
N
Reading is a very important skill to be acquired in all
primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. Reading
needs to be taught to all the primary and secondary
pupils by the English teachers as it is in line with
English Language Curriculum Standard (2001) which
is to help the pupils to acquire skills to read and
comprehend the text more effectively and efficiently.

Unfortunately, common readers, especially young


learners, do not have a good reading comprehension in
understanding English passages well and effectively.
Pupils usually find difficulties in comprehending the text if
they do not know a lot of the words in the text. This
statement is supported by Paran in Harmer (2005: 203).
He stated if the readers do not know half of the words in
a text, they will have great difficulty in understanding the
text as a whole.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Pupils often face difficulty to show their understanding concerning a text
both in verbal and written form even after reading a text for several times.
One of the main reasons contributing to this issue was pupils affective
aspects which include attitudes, interest and motivation.
Pupils attitudes and interest towards a text and the skill being taught
would affect their motivation to read.
Pupils who are motivated to read are likely to give the reading task the
degree of attention needed to result in high levels of comprehension
(Pearson, David & Johnson, 1978).
Moreover our pupils also lack the word recognition strategy.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the effects of pre-reading activities on pupils
reading?
How does the use of pre-questioning and using pictures
enhance pupils reading comprehension?

PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to find out
the effectiveness of using :
(1) Pre-questioning technique.
(2) Picture cards,
to enhance vocabulary for reading
comprehension among Year 2 pupils.

SAMPLE
Year 2 Ibnu Qaiyyim from Sekolah Kebangsaan Changkat
Jering.
20 students were randomly chosen:
-10 male and 10 female.
Three criteria formed the basis for this selection:
- English language proficiency
- willingness to participate
- and gender.
The age of the students is eight years old.

INSTRUMENT
Quantitative and qualitative methods were used

3 Instruments

1)observation
checklist

2)pre-post test

3) questionnaire.

The pre-post test was a quantitative form of data collection - to gather


data on the improvement of the pupils on the reading comprehension
skill.
The questionnaire and observation checklist were qualitative form of data focused on the relationship between pre-reading activities and the pupils reading
comprehension skill.

DATA COLLECTION
A ) Planning.
1. Selecting material
2. Making a test
consisting of five items
FIRST
CYCLE

B) Action
1. Teach pupils following
the traditional method.
2. Asking the pupils to
answer the pre test
questions.

C) Observation
1. Observing the
pupils behaviour and
attitude toward the
test
2. Analyzing and
interpreting the pupils
score.
D) Reflection
Based on the score of
the pre-evaluation the
researchers would try to
find out an alternative
way to eliminate the
difficulties.

SECOND CYCLE
PLANING
1. Preparing the picture
cards needed for the
passage.
2. Preparing the questions
for the pre-questioning
technique.
3. Making teaching
scenario.
4. Determining the
schedule and time
allocation.
5. Making a test
consisting five items.

ACTION
Pre-activities
1. Greeting the pupils
2. Checking the
attendance.
3. Warming up the
students.
While activities
1. Showing the picture
cards.
2. Carry out the pre
questioning session.
Post activities
3. Giving post test to the
pupils.
2. Asking the pupils to
answer the test.
3. Asking the pupils to
answer the
questionnaire
4. Collecting the pupils
answer sheets and
questionnaire.
5. Ending the class by
saying good bye.

OBSERVATION

REFLECTION

1. Observation checklist
were done by a teacher.

1.

The alternative
solution for the
problems found.

2. Analyzing and
interpreting the result of

2.

The researcher was


concerned with the
result of the
observation.

3.

Through the analysis


of post test and the
questionnaire, the
researcher could
decide whether the
study would be
stopped or continued
to the next cycle.

Post- test and


questionnaires.

ANALYSIS
The participants pre-test and post-test were evaluated by using
percentage and grades. The grading score and interpretation of the
result are classified in Table 1.
Table 1 : Examination grade and marks percentage
( Malaysian Examination Board 2015 )

Table 2 : Comparison of the Pre-Test and the Post-Test Marks of the


Pupils in Year 2 Ibnu Qaiyyim.

Percen Percen
tage
tage
(%)
(%)

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Particip
ant's PreCode test
R1
20%
R2
40%
R3
20%
R4
40%
R5
40%
R6
20%
R7
40%
R8
20%
R9
40%
R10
20%
R11
40%
R12
40%
R13
40%
R14
20%
R15
20%
R16
60%
R17
60%
R18
20%
R19
60%
R20
20%

Posttest
60%
80%
60%
80%
100%
80%
100%
80%
80%
60%
60%
80%
80%
60%
60%
100%
100%
60%
100%
60%

Figure 1: Comparison of pre-test and post-test

Table 2 : Respondents Grade in pre-test and post-test

Grade

A
B
C
D
E
F

Score
s
85100
70-84
60-69
50-59
40-49
0-19

No. of
respondents'

No.of
respondents'

(pre-test)

(post-test)

8
9

5
7
8

Figure 2 : Bar graph on the pre-test and


post-test results
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

No. of respondents' (pretest)


No.of respondents' (posttest)

Table 3 : Result of the Questionnaire


Percentages of the
pupils that answer

Items/ Questions
1)

I enjoyed learning
English
Items/ Questions
using picture.

Percentages of the pupils


that answer No

Percentages
Yes

Percentages of

of the pupils

the pupils that

that 100%
answer

answer No 0%

Yes

2) Pictures helps me to

1) I enjoyed

understand the text better.

learning

English using

100%
100%

0%
0%

3)Asking questions before

picture.
Pictures
helps
giving the text 1)
ease
my
me to
understanding of the text

given.

understand

100%
100%

0%
0%

the text

4)The use of pictures better.

1) Asking

increases my interest to learn


English

questions

100%

0%

before giving

5) I want pictures to be used

the text ease

for the next reading lesson

my

understanding

100%
100%

0%

0%

Figure 3: Questionnaires Results


120%

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

Percentages of the pupils that


answer Yes
Percentages of the pupils that
answer No

Table 4 : Results from Observation Checklist

Recommendation
FUTURE
ACTION

R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H

1. Refer to word list


2. Pictures are clear
3. More learnercentered intervention.
4. More qualitative
forms of data collection

CONCLUSION

e-questioning technique and picture cards had proven to be an effective teaching and learning
ol both for teachers and pupils.

has significant advantages that could bring about maximum participation and motivation for the
pils to acquire vocabulary.

helps the pupils to offset negative perception about the difficulties in acquiring vocabulary
ough the joy and fun that it offers.

achers can take advantage of the time they have with students in this area by creating
portunities for network building (Henriksen,1999). This can be encouraged by embedding words
meaningful context, such as the use of images to enhance verbal information (Chun &
aybe,2004: Nikolova,2002), providing creative outlets such as student-authored materials
ikolova,2002) and testing based on productive vocabulary use (Meara & Fitzpatrick,2000). An
tensive vocabulary has long been seen as a sign of general intelligence (Anderson &
eebody,1979) and an enabler of communicative ability (Meara & Fitzpatrick,2000) and the
hieving of one does not have to be a painful experience.

erefore, the present paper suggests the use of picture cards and pre-questioning as way
achers can help their pupils to improve their vocabularies by effective and enjoyable means.

Orchid

Garden

Lily

READING
TEXT

COMPREHENSION
QUESTIONS