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Food Storing and Issuing Control

Copyright 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, In

c. All rights reserved

Food Storage Standards Concerns


Condition of facilities and equipment

Arrangement of foods
Location of facilities
Security of storage areas
Dating and pricing of stored foods

Copyright 2006 by J

Factors Involved in Proper Internal

Temperature (next slide)
Storage containers:
Staples (airtight, insect-proof); Perishables (packed to
maintain original quality); - Fresh Fish (packed in ice); Cooked foods & open cans (stainless steel containers)

Perishables (slatted shelving)
Nonperishables (solid steel shelving)

Cleanliness: daily sweeping and cleaning

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Optimum Temperatures for Storing

Fresh meats
Fresh produce
Fresh dairy products
Fresh fish
Frozen foods

34*F to 36*F
34*F to 36*F
34*F to 36*F
30*F to 34*F
-10*F to 0*F

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Factors Involved in Arrangement of

Availability according to use
Most frequently used items closest to entrance

Fixing definite location

Each item always found in the same location
Separate facilities for storage of different classes of foods

Rotation of stock
Older quantities of food used before newer deliveries
First-in, first-out method of stock rotation
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Problems from Lack of Training

Foods stored inappropriate containers or at improper
One single item stored in several locations
New delivers stored in front of old
Increased pilferage if storage areas are not secured
Values of issues unidentifiable because those issuing
foods have not recorded item prices on requisitions

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Product Issuing
Often, foodservice managers create difficulties
for their workers by developing a requisition
system that is far too time-consuming and
The difficulty in such an approach usually arises
because management hopes to equate products
issued with products sold without taking a
physical inventory.
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Product security can be achieved if a few

principles are observed:
1. Food, beverages, and supplies should be requisitioned
only as needed based on approved production schedules.
2. Required items (issues) should be issued only with
management approval.
3. If a written record of issues is to be kept, each person
removing food, beverages, or supplies from the storage
area must sign, acknowledging receipt of the products.
4. Products that do not ultimately get used should be
returned to the storage area, and their return recorded.
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It is vital that a copy of the storeroom requisition
form be sent to the purchasing agent after it has
been used so that this individual will have a
sense of the movement of product in and out of
the storage areas.

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Ethics have been defined as the choices of

proper conduct made by an individual in his or
her relationships with others.
Ethics come into play in purchasing products
because of the tendency for some suppliers to
seek an unfair advantage over the competition
by providing personal favors to the buyer.
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Remember that storage costs money, in terms
of the space for items, and the money that is tied
up in inventory items.
In most establishments, the storage process
consists of four parts: placing products in
storage, maintaining product quality and safety,
maintaining product security, and determining
inventory value.
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Location of Storage Facilities

Speeds the storing and issuing of food
Maximizes security
Reduces labor requirements

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FIFO (first in, first out) means that the operator intends
to rotate stock in such a way that product already on
hand is sold prior to the sale of more recently delivered
FIFO is the preferred storage technique for most
perishable and non-perishable items.
Failure to implement a FIFO system of storage
management can result in excessive product loss due to
spoilage, shrinkage, and deterioration of quality.
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Some operators require the storeroom clerk to
mark or tag each delivered item with the date of
Products are generally placed in one of three
major storage areas: dry storage, refrigerated
storage, or frozen storage.
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Dry storage
Dry storage areas should generally be maintained at
a temperature ranging between 65oF and 70oF.
Shelving must be sturdy, easy to clean, and at least
6 inches above the ground to ensure proper
Dry goods should never be stored directly on the
floor. Labels should face out for easy identification
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Refrigerated Storage
Refrigerator temperatures should generally be
maintained between 32oF (0oC) and 36oF (2oC).
Refrigerators actually work by removing heat from
the contents, rather than "making" food cold.
Refrigerators should have easily cleaned shelving
units that are at least six inches off the floor and are
slotted to allow for good air circulation.

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Freezer Storage
Freezer temperatures should be maintained between 0F
and -10F (-18oC and -23oC).
It is anticipated that in the future more and more
foodservice storage space will be devoted to frozen
Frozen food holding units must be regularly maintained,
a process that includes cleaning inside and out, and
constant temperature monitoring to detect possible
improper operation.
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Stock Rotation
Regardless of the storage type, food and related
products should be stored neatly in some logical
Food product quality rarely improves with
increased storage time.
The primary method for ensuring product quality
while in storage is through proper product rotation
and high standards of storeroom sanitation.
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Storage areas are excellent breeding grounds for

insects, some bacteria, and also rodents. To
protect against these potentially damaging
hazards, you should insist on a regular cleaning of
all storage areas.
Both refrigerators and frozen food holding units
should be kept six to ten inches from walls to
allow for the free circulation of air around, and
efficient operation of, the units.
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Most foodservice operators attempt to control

access to the location of stored products.
It is your responsibility to see to it that the
storeroom clerk maintains good habits in securing
product inventory.
As a general rule, if storerooms are to be locked,
only one individual should have the key during
any shift.
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Other Storeroom Needs

Ideally, frozen food holding units and
refrigerators should have externally visible
internal thermometers, whether they are read as
a digital display, or in the more traditional
temperature scale.
In larger storage areas, hallways should be kept
clear and empty of storage materials or boxes
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It is the responsibility of the storeroom clerk, or

a person selected by management, to maintain
the inventory in a way that is easy to count and
determine its monetary value.
It is not possible to know your actual food
expense without an accurate inventory.
Issuing is the placing of products into the
production system.
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Food or beverage products may be transferred

from one food service unit to another. For
example, it is likely that fruit juice, vegetables,
and similar items are taken from the kitchen for
use in the bar, while wine, sherry, and similar
items may be taken from the bar for use in the
Transfers out of the kitchen are subtracted from
the cost of food sold and transfers in to the
kitchen are added to the cost of food sold.
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Food & Beverage Transfers

Intraunit Transfers
Between Bar and Kitchen
Cooking wines and spirits
Fruits, juices and dairy products

Between Kitchen and Kitchen

Large hotels that operate more than one kitchen

Interunit Transfers
Transfers of food and beverage between units in a chain
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The written Purchase Order form should contain space

for the following information

Purchase Order Information

Item Name
Spec #, if appropriate
Quantity Ordered
Quoted Price
Extension Price
Total Price of Order
Vendor Information

Purchase Order Number

Date Ordered
Delivery Date
Ordered by____
Received by_______
Delivery Instructions

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The advantages of a written Purchase Order are

many but include the following:
Written verification of quoted price.
Written verification of quantity ordered.
Written verification of the receipt of all goods ordered.
Written and special instructions to the receiving clerk, as
Written verification of conformance to product
Written authorization to prepare vendor invoice for
The advantages of a written Purchase Order are many but
include the following:

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