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# Lecture

On
Signal Flow Graph

Flow of PPT

## What is Signal Flow Graph (SFG)?

Definitions of terms used in SFG
Rules for drawing of SFG
Masons Gain formula
SFG from simultaneous eqns
SFG from differential eqns
Examples
Solution of a problem by Block diagram reduction
technique and SFG
SFG from a given Transfer function
Examples

## SFG is a diagram which represents a set of

simultaneous
equations.
This method was developed by S.J.Mason. This
method
does nt require any reduction technique.

## It consists of nodes and these nodes are

connected by a
directed line called branches.
Every branch has an arrow which represents the
flow of
signal.
For complicated systems, when Block Diagram
(BD) reduction

## Comparison of BD and SFG

block
diagram:

R (s )

G (s )

signal flow
graph:

G (s )

C (s )
R (s )

C (s )

this case at each step block diagram is to Only one time SFG is to be drawn
e redrawn. Thats why it is tedious method. and then Masons gain formula is
to be evaluated.
o wastage of time and space.
So time and space is saved.

SFG

## Definition of terms required in SFG

Node: It is a point representing a variable.
x2 = t 12 x1 +t32 x3
X3
X1

t12

X2
t32

## In this SFG there are 3 nodes.

Branch : A line joining two
X
nodes.X1
2

branches.
X is input node.

## Output node/ sink node: Only incoming

branches.
Mixed nodes: Has both incoming and outgoing
branches.
Transmittance : It is the gain between two nodes.
It is generally written on the branch near the
t34
t23
arrow. t12
X1

X2

X4

X3
t43

## Path : It is the traversal of connected branches in the

direction
of branch arrows, such that no node is traversed more than
once.
Forward path : A path which originates from the input node
and terminates at the output node and along which no node
is traversed more than once.
Forward Path gain : It is the product of branch
transmittances
of a forward path.

= G1 G2 G3 G4,

= G5 G6 G7 G8

## Loop : Path that originates and terminates at

the same node and along which no other node is
traversed more than once.
Self loop: Path that originates and terminates at
the same node.
Loop gain: it is the product of branch
transmittances of a loop.
Non-touching loops: Loops that dont have any
common node or branch.

L 1 = G2 H2
H3
L3= G7 H7

branc
h
node

input node
(source)

transmittan
ce
mixed
node

x1

x4

b
forward
path
x2
loop

input node
(source)

mixed
node
path x

x3

## Rules for drawing of SFG

from Block diagram
All variables, summing points and take off points are
represented by nodes.
Assume nodes at input, output, at every summing point, at
every branch point and in between cascaded blocks
Draw nodes separately as small circles and number the circles
in the order 1,2,3,4.etc.
From the block diagram find the gain between each node in
the main forward path and connect all the corresponding
circles by straight lines and mark the gain between the nodes
Draw the feed forward paths between various nodes and
mark the gain of feed forward path along with sign
Draw the feedback paths between various nodes and mark
the gain of feedback path along with sign

## Masons Gain Formula

A technique to reduce a signal-flow graph to a single
transfer function requires the application of one
formula.
The transfer function, C(s)/R(s), of a system
represented by a
signal-flow graph is

## k = number of forward paths

Pk = the kth forward path gain
= 1 (sum of individual loop gains) + (sum of gain
products of all possible combinations of two nontouching loops) (sum of gain products of all possible
combinations of three non-touching loops)+ so on .

## EX: To find T/F of the given

block diagram

Identification of Forward
Paths

P 1 = 1.1.G1 .G
= G1 G2 G3

P 2 = 1.1.G
= G 2 G3

.G

. G3. 1

.1

Individual Loops

= G 1G 2 H

= - G 4H

= - G 2G 3 H

=-G

=-G

Construction
of
SFG
simultaneous equations

from

t21

23

t3
1

t32

t33

## SFG from Differential

equations
Consider the differential equation

y 3 y 5 y 2 y x

## Step 1: Solve the above eqn for highest order

y x 3 y 5 y 2 y
Step 2: Consider the left hand terms (highest derivative) as dependant
variable and all other terms on right hand side as independent
variables.
Construct the branches of signal flow graph as shown below:x

y
y

2
-5

1
y

-3
(a)

Step 3: Connect the nodes of highest order derivatives to the lowest order
der.node and so on. The flow of signal will be from higher node to lower
node and transmittance will be 1/s as shown in fig (b)
x
y

1/s
y

(b)

1/s
y

-2
-5

-3
1/s

## Step 4: Reverse the sign of a branch connecting y to y, with

condition no change in T/F fn.

## Problem: to find out loops

from the given SFG

Individual
loops
L 1 = G2 H2
L 2= G3 H3
L

= G6 H 6

= G7 H7

## Pair of Non-touching loops

L 1L 3
L 1L 4
L2 L3

L 2L

Pk k
Y

R (1 ( L1 L 2 ) LiLj LiLjLk ..

Y( s )

G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 1 L 3 L 4 G 5 G 6 G 7 G 8 1 L 1 L 2

R( s )

1 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 1 L 3 L 1 L 4 L 2 L 3 L 2 L 4

Ex:

Forward Paths

Loops

L1= -G 5 G 6
H1
L 2 = -G2 G 3G 4G
5 H2
L 3 = -G 8 H 1
L 4 = - G2 G

H2

L5 = -G

Loops

L 6 = - G 1G2 G 3G 4G

H3
L 7 = - G 1G2 G 7G
6 H3

L 8= - G 1G2 G 3G 4G

H3

L

L 4L

L
4

L
L 5L

L
4

L 3L

paths

1=1
2= -G
H4
3= 1

## Signal-Flow Graph Models

P1

Y( s )

P1 P2 2 P3

R( s )

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6

P2

G1 G2 G7 G6

P3

G1 G2 G3 G4 G8

1 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L5 L7 L5 L4 L3 L4
3

1 L5

1 G4 H4

## Block Diagram Reduction

Example
H2

R
+_

+
+

G1

_
+

H1

C
G2

G3

R
+_

G1G2G3
1 G1G2 H1 G2G3 H 2

G1G2G3
1 G1G2 H1 G2G3 H 2 G1G2G3

SFG

Forward Path

=G

G 2 G3

Loops

= G

G 2 H1

=-G

G3 H2

L
P

=G

= G

G 2 G3

=-G
=-G

G 2 H1
2

G3 H2

G 2 G3

1 = 1
= 1- (L1 + L

+L 3 )

=-G

G 2 G3

## SFG from given T/F

C (s )
24

R (s ) (s 2)(s 3)(s 4)

1
s 1

(s 2) (1 2s 1 )

Ex:

Than
ks