Power Transmission and Distribution

Power System Structure
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Medium 24 kV
Voltage 21 kV
15 kV
13.8 kV

Transmission / Sub transmission
Extra High Voltage
High Voltage

765 kV
400 kV
220 kV
132 kV
110 kV
66 kV

Medium Voltage

33 kV
22 kV
11 kV

consumers. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energytotothe
utilisation points with both reliability and economy.
Energy Automation

Badiya Page 1

Power Transmission and Distribution

System Disturbances
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Short Circuits in earthed systems
Symmetrical (3 phase)
Phase to Phase (and Earth)
Phase to Earth
Earth Faults in non effectively
earthed systems
Overload Conditions

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Protective Relaying
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Role of Protection

Protective Relaying is the most important feature of
power system design aimed at minimising the
damage to equipment and interruption to service in
the event of faults.

It is therefore a co-factor

among other factors resorted to improve reliability
of power system.

Energy Automation

Badiya Page 3

Energy Automation Badiya Page 4 . 1 with Energy Automation The protection can not prevent system faults. But it can: Limit the damage caused by short circuits While: Protecting people and plant from damage Selectively clearing faults in miliseconds Protecting plant from overload conditions Power system must operate in a safe manner at all times.Power Transmission and Distribution The Purpose of Protection No.

's.a. and bus 400 kV 2*10-1 p.a. and 100 km  10-20 kV metal clad switchgear: 10-3 p. -1and bus 220/275 kV 10 p.a.a.Power Transmission and Distribution Causes and Probability of System Disturbances No. 1 with Energy Automation Causes  Operator Mistakes  Pollution/Condensation  Equipment failures. and feeder  GIS switchgear: 5-10-2 p. P.a.g. and bus  outdoor switchgear: 110/132 kV 7*10-2 p. Isolators  Transient Overvoltages Probability  System faults (220/400 kV): 3p.T. e. and bus Energy Automation Badiya Page 5 .a.

Hence. a certain safeguard is necessary in the unlikely event of its failure to act at the hour of need.Power Transmission and Distribution Principles of Relaying No. two groups of protective schemes are generally employed a) Primary Protection b) Back-up Protection Primary Protection is the first line of defense. whereas back-up relaying takes over the protection of equipment. 1 with Energy Automation Since protective relaying comes into action at the time of equipment distress. should the primary protection fail. Energy Automation Badiya Page 6 .

1 with Energy Automation The Primary Protection has following characteristic features 1. 4. therefore. it should be faster in operation. Badiya Page 7 .Power Transmission and Distribution Primary Protection No. 3. Energy Automation It should be stable for all operating conditions. It should operate before any back-up protection could operate. 2. It has always a defined zone of operation. It should be able to completely isolate the fault from all the current feeding sources.

3.Power Transmission and Distribution Back-up Protection No. Back-up protection should provide sufficient time for the primary protection to perform its duty. Back-up protection covers a wider zone of protection. 2. several back-up relays may operate for complete isolation of fault. 1 with Energy Automation 1. Under primary protection failure. Therefore. there is always a possibility of large scale disturbance. when back-up relays operate. Energy Automation Badiya Page 8 .

Failure of Breaker It is therefore logical that back-up relays should not utilise any of the above items as common with primary relays. Current or Potential Transformer failure 2. Energy Automation Badiya Page 9 . Open Circuits in Control & Trip Coil 5.Power Transmission and Distribution Reasons of Primary Protection Failure No. Loss of Auxiliary Control Voltage 3. 1 with Energy Automation Primary protections failure could be due to any of the following reasons 1. Defective Primary Relays 4.

1 with Energy Automation Circuit Breaker CT / VT Cabling DISTANCE RELAY Protection  Energy Automation Battery The system is only as strong as the weakest link! Badiya Page 10 .Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Concept No.

1 with Energy Automation Basic Protection Requirements  Reliability dependability (availability) high dependability = low risk of failure to trip  Security stable for all operating conditions .Power Transmission and Distribution No. high security = low risk of over-trip  Speed high speed minimizes damage high speed reduces stability problems  Selectivity trip the minimum number of circuit breakers  Sensitivity notice smallest fault value Energy Automation Badiya Page 11 .

owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors. REF relay Zone reach depends on measurement of the system quantities e. distance relays . The start will be defined but the extent (or ‘reach’) is subject to variation.g OC . EF. Energy Automation Badiya Page 12 . so that no part of the power system is left unprotected Location of the CT connection to the protection usually defines the zone Unit type protections have clear zones reach e. Relay.g Diff.Power Transmission and Distribution Zones of Protection No. protection is arranged in zones Zones of protection should overlap. 1 with Energy Automation      To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault occurs.

One Out of Two Principle No. 1 with Energy Automation System 1 Trip Coil 1 Trip Coil 2 System 2 Battery 1 Battery 2   Energy Automation Badiya Page 13 .Power Transmission and Distribution Protection .

Power Transmission and Distribution Redundancy Concept of DC Circuits No. 1 with Energy Automation Battery 1 Battery 2 Main Protection Back-up Protection 87T TR TC 1 L- Energy Automation 87BB 50/51 TR TC 2 Busbar Protection BF TR Trip remote infeed L- Badiya Page 14 .

25 ILmax Badiya Page 15 . 1 with Energy Automation Infeed Line Consumer G • Short circuit power of the infeed • Voltage level • Line impedance • Fault resistance (arc) • Treatment of star point Estimate of short circuit currents: Medium Voltage (10 kV upto 30kV) High Voltage (110 kV) Extra High Voltage (220kV + ) Energy Automation ISCmin > ILmax ISCmin >= ILmax ISCmin = 0.Power Transmission and Distribution Factors that influence fault current magnitude No.

• With low impedance earthing the residual current detection must be more sensitive. Energy Automation L Peterson Coil isolated neutral • Earth faults = no short circuit • Supply is not disrupted • Earth fault must be alarmed and removed as fast as possible • Earth fault location is achieved with wattmetric earth fault detection Badiya Page 16 . 1 with Energy Automation R earthed system • Earth fault = short circuit is recognised by normal over-current protection.Power Transmission and Distribution Earth faults: Star-point configuration No.

Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Criterion .Time (to ensure selectivity) Protection:  Fuses  inverse time protection  definite time protection Energy Automation (IDMT) (DT) Badiya Page 17 . 1 with Energy Automation  The overcurrent condition is evaluated I>  Suitable for: I> ILmax I ISCmin  Additional criterion .Current No.

In = 0. if the equation is not satisfied the fault is internal  Security is increased by stabilisation |I1|+|I2|+ .... |In| = Istab  Characteristic: Idiff Trip Istab  definite distinction internal / external faults (no back-up) Protection:  Line differential protection  Generator-.Current Difference No. transformer differential protection  Busbar protection Energy Automation Badiya Page 18 . motor-.Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Criterion . 1 with Energy Automation  Evaluation of node I1 + I2 + I3 + ..

Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Criterion .Impedance No.Time (Required for selectivity and back-up protection) Protection:  Multiple stage distance protection Energy Automation Badiya Page 19 . 1 with Energy Automation  From the voltage and current signals the impedance is calculated  The impedance is proportional to the fault distance  Characteristic: X Z< R  Additional criterion .

Power Transmission and Distribution Measured signals and time grading principle No. 1 with Energy Automation B A Protected object Protection device Example distance protection t t3 t2 t1 A Energy Automation Z1 B Z2 l Badiya Page 20 .

1 with Energy Automation B A Protected object Protection device Protection device communication momentary values/ binary decisions Protection device t A Energy Automation B Badiya Page 21 .Power Transmission and Distribution Comparison Protection Principle No.

Power Transmission and Distribution Typical Distance Zone Characteristics No. 1 with Energy Automation MHO-circle X ZA ZSC' X starting zone external fault ZSC   combined circleand straight line characteristic Zone 3 internal fault Zone 2 Zone 1 R R X polarised MHO-circle polygonal tripping characteristic (quadrilateral) RF ZS = 0 ZL R X XA settable arc compensation ZL RLB ZS small RA ZS large R ZS Energy Automation Badiya Page 22 .

1 with Energy Automation  Current increase  Under and over voltage  Directional comparison  Phase comparison  Power direction  Phase angle  Over and under frequency  Frequency gradient  Harmonics  Special criteria in machine protection Energy Automation Badiya Page 23 .Power Transmission and Distribution Further Typical Protection Criteria No.

Power Transmission and Distribution Typical Protected Objects No. 100 kVA upto 20 MVA  Reactors. Energy Automation Badiya Page 24 . 1 with Energy Automation  Generators G < 1MVA upto 1500 MVA  Transformers 0.1 MVA upto 1000 MVA  Busbars from 110 kV up to 750kV  Lines from 1kV upto 750 kV  Motors M approx. Capacitor etc.

. 1 with Energy Automation Busbar Protection Line Protection 1 out of 2 principle LP1 LP2 1 trip line Energy Automation 1 out of n principle 1 & trip section 1 & trip section 2 Check Zone Transformer Protection Relay 1 . Relay n Section 1 2 out of 2 principle Section 2 trip transformer Badiya Page 25 .Power Transmission and Distribution Redundancy Concepts No. .

Power Transmission and Distribution Stability Limits in Transmission System No. 1 with Energy Automation 70 stability limit 60 Protection 50 Fault Clearing 40 Time 30 ms 20 10 0 1300 Energy Automation 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Line Load MW Badiya Page 26 .

02 0 1 Energy Automation 2 3 4 5 6 number of relays 7 8 9 10 Badiya Page 27 .06 0.1 Failure rate active failure (over trip) 0.08 0.Power Transmission and Distribution Failure Rate of Redundant Systems No. 1 with Energy Automation 0.12 0.04 passive failure (under trip) 0.

1 with Energy Automation Integration of the protection functions for one feeder: Feeder protection device Example: overhead line of extra high voltage       Energy Automation Distance protection with I>> or u</i>-exitation Three-pole reclosure Directional earth fault detection Fault location Event log Fault recording Badiya Page 28 .Power Transmission and Distribution Why Digital Protection? No.

Power Transmission and Distribution Why Digital Protection? No. 1 with Energy Automation Self-supervision Raising of the availability      Plausibility control of the input values Supervision of the a/d-conversion Internal testing of the computer systems (watch-dog) Supervision of the memory chips Testing the trip-relay-coil Energy Automation Badiya Page 29 .

Energy Automation Badiya Page 30 . 1 with Energy Automation Contacts provide electrical outputs for tripping and remote indication purposes Self-reset  The contacts remain in the operated condition only while the controlling quantity is applied. They can be reset either by hand or electrically by an auxiliary electromagnetic element A 'make' contact  is one that closes when the relay picks up A break contact  is one that is closed when the relay is de-energised and opens when the relay picks up. returning to their original condition when it is removed.Power Transmission and Distribution Contact Terms No. Hand or electrical reset  These contacts remain in the operated condition after the controlling quantity is removed.