Power Transmission and Distribution

Power System Structure
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Medium 24 kV
Voltage 21 kV
15 kV
13.8 kV

Transmission / Sub transmission
Extra High Voltage
High Voltage

765 kV
400 kV
220 kV
132 kV
110 kV
66 kV

Medium Voltage

33 kV
22 kV
11 kV

consumers. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energytotothe
utilisation points with both reliability and economy.
Energy Automation

Badiya Page 1

Power Transmission and Distribution

System Disturbances
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Short Circuits in earthed systems
Symmetrical (3 phase)
Phase to Phase (and Earth)
Phase to Earth
Earth Faults in non effectively
earthed systems
Overload Conditions

Energy Automation

Badiya Page 2

Power Transmission and Distribution

Protective Relaying
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Role of Protection

Protective Relaying is the most important feature of
power system design aimed at minimising the
damage to equipment and interruption to service in
the event of faults.

It is therefore a co-factor

among other factors resorted to improve reliability
of power system.

Energy Automation

Badiya Page 3

Power Transmission and Distribution The Purpose of Protection No. Energy Automation Badiya Page 4 . But it can: Limit the damage caused by short circuits While: Protecting people and plant from damage Selectively clearing faults in miliseconds Protecting plant from overload conditions Power system must operate in a safe manner at all times. 1 with Energy Automation The protection can not prevent system faults.

a. and bus Energy Automation Badiya Page 5 . and bus  outdoor switchgear: 110/132 kV 7*10-2 p.g.Power Transmission and Distribution Causes and Probability of System Disturbances No. and feeder  GIS switchgear: 5-10-2 p. P.T. Isolators  Transient Overvoltages Probability  System faults (220/400 kV): 3p.a. -1and bus 220/275 kV 10 p.a. and bus 400 kV 2*10-1 p.a. and 100 km  10-20 kV metal clad switchgear: 10-3 p.a. e.a.'s. 1 with Energy Automation Causes  Operator Mistakes  Pollution/Condensation  Equipment failures.

1 with Energy Automation Since protective relaying comes into action at the time of equipment distress. Hence. Energy Automation Badiya Page 6 .Power Transmission and Distribution Principles of Relaying No. whereas back-up relaying takes over the protection of equipment. two groups of protective schemes are generally employed a) Primary Protection b) Back-up Protection Primary Protection is the first line of defense. a certain safeguard is necessary in the unlikely event of its failure to act at the hour of need. should the primary protection fail.

therefore.Power Transmission and Distribution Primary Protection No. 4. It has always a defined zone of operation. 1 with Energy Automation The Primary Protection has following characteristic features 1. 3. 2. Energy Automation It should be stable for all operating conditions. Badiya Page 7 . It should be able to completely isolate the fault from all the current feeding sources. it should be faster in operation. It should operate before any back-up protection could operate.

Back-up protection should provide sufficient time for the primary protection to perform its duty.Power Transmission and Distribution Back-up Protection No. Back-up protection covers a wider zone of protection. 1 with Energy Automation 1. Therefore. when back-up relays operate. several back-up relays may operate for complete isolation of fault. Under primary protection failure. 3. Energy Automation Badiya Page 8 . there is always a possibility of large scale disturbance. 2.

Open Circuits in Control & Trip Coil 5. Energy Automation Badiya Page 9 . 1 with Energy Automation Primary protections failure could be due to any of the following reasons 1. Loss of Auxiliary Control Voltage 3. Failure of Breaker It is therefore logical that back-up relays should not utilise any of the above items as common with primary relays. Current or Potential Transformer failure 2.Power Transmission and Distribution Reasons of Primary Protection Failure No. Defective Primary Relays 4.

Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Concept No. 1 with Energy Automation Circuit Breaker CT / VT Cabling DISTANCE RELAY Protection  Energy Automation Battery The system is only as strong as the weakest link! Badiya Page 10 .

1 with Energy Automation Basic Protection Requirements  Reliability dependability (availability) high dependability = low risk of failure to trip  Security stable for all operating conditions .Power Transmission and Distribution No. high security = low risk of over-trip  Speed high speed minimizes damage high speed reduces stability problems  Selectivity trip the minimum number of circuit breakers  Sensitivity notice smallest fault value Energy Automation Badiya Page 11 .

Relay. Energy Automation Badiya Page 12 . distance relays .Power Transmission and Distribution Zones of Protection No. owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors.g Diff. The start will be defined but the extent (or ‘reach’) is subject to variation. so that no part of the power system is left unprotected Location of the CT connection to the protection usually defines the zone Unit type protections have clear zones reach e.g OC . REF relay Zone reach depends on measurement of the system quantities e. EF. 1 with Energy Automation      To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault occurs. protection is arranged in zones Zones of protection should overlap.

Power Transmission and Distribution Protection .One Out of Two Principle No. 1 with Energy Automation System 1 Trip Coil 1 Trip Coil 2 System 2 Battery 1 Battery 2   Energy Automation Badiya Page 13 .

Power Transmission and Distribution Redundancy Concept of DC Circuits No. 1 with Energy Automation Battery 1 Battery 2 Main Protection Back-up Protection 87T TR TC 1 L- Energy Automation 87BB 50/51 TR TC 2 Busbar Protection BF TR Trip remote infeed L- Badiya Page 14 .

Power Transmission and Distribution Factors that influence fault current magnitude No.25 ILmax Badiya Page 15 . 1 with Energy Automation Infeed Line Consumer G • Short circuit power of the infeed • Voltage level • Line impedance • Fault resistance (arc) • Treatment of star point Estimate of short circuit currents: Medium Voltage (10 kV upto 30kV) High Voltage (110 kV) Extra High Voltage (220kV + ) Energy Automation ISCmin > ILmax ISCmin >= ILmax ISCmin = 0.

• With low impedance earthing the residual current detection must be more sensitive. Energy Automation L Peterson Coil isolated neutral • Earth faults = no short circuit • Supply is not disrupted • Earth fault must be alarmed and removed as fast as possible • Earth fault location is achieved with wattmetric earth fault detection Badiya Page 16 . 1 with Energy Automation R earthed system • Earth fault = short circuit is recognised by normal over-current protection.Power Transmission and Distribution Earth faults: Star-point configuration No.

Current No. 1 with Energy Automation  The overcurrent condition is evaluated I>  Suitable for: I> ILmax I ISCmin  Additional criterion .Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Criterion .Time (to ensure selectivity) Protection:  Fuses  inverse time protection  definite time protection Energy Automation (IDMT) (DT) Badiya Page 17 .

Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Criterion . |In| = Istab  Characteristic: Idiff Trip Istab  definite distinction internal / external faults (no back-up) Protection:  Line differential protection  Generator-.. In = 0.. transformer differential protection  Busbar protection Energy Automation Badiya Page 18 .. if the equation is not satisfied the fault is internal  Security is increased by stabilisation |I1|+|I2|+ .Current Difference No.. motor-. 1 with Energy Automation  Evaluation of node I1 + I2 + I3 + .

Time (Required for selectivity and back-up protection) Protection:  Multiple stage distance protection Energy Automation Badiya Page 19 .Impedance No. 1 with Energy Automation  From the voltage and current signals the impedance is calculated  The impedance is proportional to the fault distance  Characteristic: X Z< R  Additional criterion .Power Transmission and Distribution Protection Criterion .

Power Transmission and Distribution Measured signals and time grading principle No. 1 with Energy Automation B A Protected object Protection device Example distance protection t t3 t2 t1 A Energy Automation Z1 B Z2 l Badiya Page 20 .

Power Transmission and Distribution Comparison Protection Principle No. 1 with Energy Automation B A Protected object Protection device Protection device communication momentary values/ binary decisions Protection device t A Energy Automation B Badiya Page 21 .

1 with Energy Automation MHO-circle X ZA ZSC' X starting zone external fault ZSC   combined circleand straight line characteristic Zone 3 internal fault Zone 2 Zone 1 R R X polarised MHO-circle polygonal tripping characteristic (quadrilateral) RF ZS = 0 ZL R X XA settable arc compensation ZL RLB ZS small RA ZS large R ZS Energy Automation Badiya Page 22 .Power Transmission and Distribution Typical Distance Zone Characteristics No.

Power Transmission and Distribution Further Typical Protection Criteria No. 1 with Energy Automation  Current increase  Under and over voltage  Directional comparison  Phase comparison  Power direction  Phase angle  Over and under frequency  Frequency gradient  Harmonics  Special criteria in machine protection Energy Automation Badiya Page 23 .

1 with Energy Automation  Generators G < 1MVA upto 1500 MVA  Transformers 0.Power Transmission and Distribution Typical Protected Objects No. Energy Automation Badiya Page 24 .1 MVA upto 1000 MVA  Busbars from 110 kV up to 750kV  Lines from 1kV upto 750 kV  Motors M approx. Capacitor etc. 100 kVA upto 20 MVA  Reactors.

Relay n Section 1 2 out of 2 principle Section 2 trip transformer Badiya Page 25 . .Power Transmission and Distribution Redundancy Concepts No. 1 with Energy Automation Busbar Protection Line Protection 1 out of 2 principle LP1 LP2 1 trip line Energy Automation 1 out of n principle 1 & trip section 1 & trip section 2 Check Zone Transformer Protection Relay 1 . .

Power Transmission and Distribution Stability Limits in Transmission System No. 1 with Energy Automation 70 stability limit 60 Protection 50 Fault Clearing 40 Time 30 ms 20 10 0 1300 Energy Automation 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Line Load MW Badiya Page 26 .

1 with Energy Automation 0.04 passive failure (under trip) 0.06 0.12 0.08 0.Power Transmission and Distribution Failure Rate of Redundant Systems No.1 Failure rate active failure (over trip) 0.02 0 1 Energy Automation 2 3 4 5 6 number of relays 7 8 9 10 Badiya Page 27 .

Power Transmission and Distribution Why Digital Protection? No. 1 with Energy Automation Integration of the protection functions for one feeder: Feeder protection device Example: overhead line of extra high voltage       Energy Automation Distance protection with I>> or u</i>-exitation Three-pole reclosure Directional earth fault detection Fault location Event log Fault recording Badiya Page 28 .

1 with Energy Automation Self-supervision Raising of the availability      Plausibility control of the input values Supervision of the a/d-conversion Internal testing of the computer systems (watch-dog) Supervision of the memory chips Testing the trip-relay-coil Energy Automation Badiya Page 29 .Power Transmission and Distribution Why Digital Protection? No.

They can be reset either by hand or electrically by an auxiliary electromagnetic element A 'make' contact  is one that closes when the relay picks up A break contact  is one that is closed when the relay is de-energised and opens when the relay picks up. Hand or electrical reset  These contacts remain in the operated condition after the controlling quantity is removed. 1 with Energy Automation Contacts provide electrical outputs for tripping and remote indication purposes Self-reset  The contacts remain in the operated condition only while the controlling quantity is applied. Energy Automation Badiya Page 30 .Power Transmission and Distribution Contact Terms No. returning to their original condition when it is removed.

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