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# Reliability

## There are four methods in estimating

the reliability of good measuring
instrument. These methods are as
follows;
(1)test-retest method
(2)parallel-form method,
(3)split-half method, and
(4)internal-consistency method.

Test-Retest Method
The same measuring instrument is
administered to the same group of
subjects. The scores of the first and
second administrations of the test are
determined by correlation coefficient.

## imitations of Test-Retest Method

(1)when the time interval is short,
memory effects may operate. The
subjects may recall of his previous
responses and tends to make the
correlation of the test high;

## imitations of Test-Retest Method

(2) when the time interval is long, such
factors as unlearning, forgetting,
among others, may occur and may
result to low correlation of the test;
and

## imitations of Test-Retest Method

(3)regardless of the time interval
other varying environmental conditions
such as noise, temperature, lighting,
and other factors may effect the
correlation of the test

## earman Rank Correlation Coefficient

Spearman Rho Formula () or (rs )
6d2
rs = 1
(n3 n)
where:
d2 = sum of the squared difference
between
ranks
n = the total number of cases

## Spearman Rank Correlation

-is a nonparametricmeasure of
statistical dependence between two
variables.
-it assesses how well the relationship
between
two
variables
can
be
described using a monotonicfunction.
-if there are no repeated data values, a
perfect Spearman correlation of +1 or
1 occurs when each of the variables
is a perfect monotone function of the
other.

Scale of Correlation
0.81
0.61
0.41
0.21
0

to
to
to
to
to

## 1.0 (very strong relationship)

0.8 (strong relationship)
0.6 (moderate relationship)
0.4 (weak relationship)
0.2 (weak or no relationship)

## A positive Spearman correlation coefficient corresponds to

an increasing monotonic trend betweenXandY.

## A negative Spearman correlation coefficient corresponds to a

decreasing monotonic trend betweenXandY.

## Spearman Rank Correlation

Ex: Twelve students in third year high
school are used as pilot sample to test
the reliability of an achievement test in
Mathematics.

## Table 1 Shows student scores and reliability in two

administrations and computations of spearman rho
STUDENTS

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
n = 12

SCORES
RANKS
S1
R1
S2
55
66
71
79
72
70
43
50
35
31
64
72
57

R2
8
7
3
1
2
4
10.5
9.5
12
12
6
3
7

DIFFERENCES
D
D2
1
1.0
2
4.0
2
4.0
1
1.0
0
0
3
9.0
1

n= 12

d2 = 25.50

6d2
rs = 1
(n3 n)
(6)
(25.50)
rs = 1
[(12)3 12]
153
rs = 1
1716
rs = 0.91 very high relationship
Achievement test in mathematics is reliable

## Test the reliability of the summative test of

Grade 4 pupils in mathematics given the set
of scores of twenty pupils.
Student
Score 1 Score 2
1
88
93
2
72
64
3
45
56
4
63
58
5
69
80
6
77
71
7
90

Student
11
12
13
54
14
70
15
65
16
80
17
85
18

Score 1
80

Score 2
58
51
66
69
74
81
46

86
64

## Parallel Forms Method

Parallel or equivalent forms of a test
may be administered to the group
subjects, and the paired observations
correlated. In estimating reliability by
equivalent forms of a test, criteria or
parallelism are required. The two forms
of the test must be constructed that the
content,
type
of
item
difficulty,
many others should be similar but not
identical. Moreover these two forms

## Parallel Forms Method

Ex. Form A
Convert 100 C to F
Form B
Convert 212F to C

## Split -Half Method

The test in this method may be
administered once, but the items are
divided into two halves. The common
procedure is to divide a test into odd
and even items. The two halves of the
test must be similar but not identical in
content, number of times, difficulty,
means and standard deviations.

## Split -Half Method

Spearman-Brown Formula:
2rht
rwt =
1+ rht
where rwt = reliability of the whole test
rht = reliability of a half test.

## Split -Half Method

Ex: rht = 0.76
2rht
rwt =
1+ rht
2(0.76)
rwt =
1 + 0.76
1.52
rwt =
1.76
rwt = 0.86
high relationship
-the whole test is
reliable

## nternal Consistency Method

This method is used with psychological
test which are constructed of
dichotomously scored items. the
testee either passes or fails in an item.
A one (1) is assigned for a pass and a
zero (0) for a failure. The method of
obtaining reliability coefficients in this
method is determined by KuderRichardson formula 20. This formula is
a measure of internal consistency or
homogeneity of the measuring

Kuder Richardson
The KR 20 formula:
2
sd
pi
n
sd2 (x
2n 1
Rxx =
x
x
)
n qi sd2
=
where:
1 n = the number of items
sd2 = the variance of scores on
test
piqi = the product of proportion of
passes and fails for item 1.

TABLE 2
RESPONSES OF TWELVE STUDENT S FOR A TEST OF FIFTEEN
item STUDENT
pi
qi
piqi
ITEMS F
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

8
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

9
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10 11 12
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

151514 12 11 9 9 5 2 2

11
10
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
5
5
4
3
3
2

0.92
0.83
0.67
0.67
0.67
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.58
0.42
0.42
0.33
0.25
0.25
0.17

0.08
0.17
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.58
0.58
0.67
0.75
0.75
0.83

0.0736
0.1411
0.2211
0.2211
0.2211
0.2436
0.2436
0.2436
0.2436
0.2436
0.2436
0.2211
0.1875
0.1875
0.1411

piqi=

3.0768

STUDE
NT

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
n=
12

x
15
15
14
12
11
9
9
5
2
2
1
0

(x - X)
7.08
7.08
6.08
4.08
3.08
1.08
1.08
-2.92
-5.92
-5.92
-6.92
-7.92

x = X =
95 7.92

(x - X)2
50.1264
50.1264
36.9964
16.6464
9.4864
1.1664
1.1664
8.5264
35.0464
35.0464
47.8864
62.7264
(x X)2 =
354.9168

sd2 (x
2n 1
x
)
=
354.92
sd =
12 1
sd2= 32.265
2

Kuder Richardson
Rxx
Rxx

2
sd
=
32.265
sd2 pi
n
pi qi =
=
x
n qi sd2
n = 15
3.0768
1 15
32.265 3.0768
x
=
15 1
32.265

Rxx =0.96796