Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

Dynamic Routing Protocols I

RIP
Relates to Lab 4.
The first module on dynamic routing protocols. This module provides an
overview of routing, introduces terminology (interdomain, intradomain,
autonomous system),

Routing
Recall: There are two parts to routing IP packets:
1. How to pass a packet from an input interface to the output
interface of a router (packet forwarding) ?
2. How to find and setup a route ?
We already discussed the packet forwarding part
There are two approaches for calculating the routing tables:
Static Routing
Dynamic Routing: Routes are calculated by a routing protocol

IP Routing
routing
daemon

route
comman d

netstat
comman d

UDP

TCP
YES
For me ?

ICMP

Process IP
Options
routing
table

IP Output: Calculate
Next Hop Router
IP Input
Queue
Network Interfaces

IP Layer

Autonomous Systems
An autonomous system is a region of the Internet that is
administered by a single entity.
Examples of autonomous regions are:
UVAs campus network
MCIs backbone network
Regional Internet Service Provider
Routing is done differently within an autonomous system
(intradomain routing) and between autonomous system
(interdomain routing).

Autonomous Systems (AS)


Ethernet

Autonomous
System 1

Ethernet

Router

Ethernet

Router

Router

Router
Ethernet
Router

Autonomous
System 2

Ethernet

RouterEthernet

Interdomain and Intradomain Routing


Intradomain Routing

Interdomain Routing

Routing within an AS
Ignores the Internet outside the
AS
Protocols for Intradomain routing
are also called Interior Gateway
Protocols or IGPs.
Popular protocols are
RIP (simple, old)
OSPF (better)

Routing between ASs


Assumes that the Internet
consists of a collection of
interconnected ASs
Normally, there is one dedicated
router in each AS that handles
interdomain traffic.
Protocols for interdomain routing
are also called Exterior Gateway
Protocols or EGPs.
Routing protocols:
EGP
BGP (more recent)

Components of a Routing Algorithm


A procedure for sending and receiving reachability information
about network to other routers
A procedure for calculating optimal routes
Routes are calculated using a shortest path algorithm:
Goal: Given a network were each link is assigned a
cost. Find the path with the least cost between two
networks with minimum cost.
A procedures for reacting to and advertising topology changes

Approaches to Shortest Path Routing


There are two basic routing algorithms found on the Internet.
1. Distance Vector Routing

Each node knows the distance (=cost) to its directly connected neighbors
A node sends periodically a list of routing updates to its neighbors.
If all nodes update their distances, the routing tables eventually converge
New nodes advertise themselves to their neighbors

2. Link State Routing


Each node knows the distance to its neighbors
The distance information (=link state) is broadcast to all nodes in the
network
Each node calculates the routing tables independently

Routing Algorithms in the Internet


Distance Vector

Link State

Routing Information Protocol


(RIP)

Intermediate System Intermediate System (IS-IS)

Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol
(GGP)

Open Shortest Path First


(OSPF)

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)


Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(IGRP)

Dynamic IP Routing Protocols


In Unix systems, the dynamic setting of routing tables is done
by the routed or gated daemons
The routing daemons execute the following intradomain and
interdomain routing protocols
intradomain

Daemon

Hello

rrouted
Gated
(Version 3)

RIP

interdomain

OSPF

EGP

BGP

V2

Yes

V2, V3

V1
Yes

V1
V2

10

A network as a graph
In the following, networks are represented as a network
graph:
nodes are connected by networks
network can be a link or a LAN

network interface has cost


networks are destinations
Net(v,w) is an IP address of a network
c(v,w)
Net(v,w)
v
For ease of notation,

we often replace the


clouds between nodes
by simple links.

c(v,n)

Net

Net(v,n)
n

11

Distance Vector Algorithm: Routing Table


c(v,w): cost to transmit on the
interface to network Net(v,w)
Net(v,w): Network address of the network between v
and w
The network can be a link, but could also be a LAN
RoutingTable of node v
Dest

Net(v,w)
c(v,w)
Net(v,n)
c(v,n)

via
(next hop)

cost

Net

Net

D (v,Net)

12

Distance Vector Algorithm: Messages


RoutingTable of node v
Dest

Net

via
(next hop)

cost

D (v,Net)

Nodes send messages to their neighbors which contain


routing table entries
vv

[Net , D(v,Net)]

nn

A message has the format: [Net , D(v,Net)] meansMy cost


to go to Net is D (v,Net)
13

Distance Vector Algorithm: Sending Updates


RoutingTable of node v
via

Dest

(next hop)

cost

Net

D (v,Net

Net

D (v,Net

Net

D (v,Net

Periodically, each node v


sends the content of its routing
table to its neighbors:

[Net

,D(v,Net

[Net

,D(v,Net

)]
N

[Net

)]

[Net

1
N

,D(v,Net

,D(v,Net

)]

)]

w
[Net

,D(v,Net

)]

[Net

,D(v,Net

)]

14

Initiating Routing Table I


Suppose a new node v becomes active.
The cost to access directly connected networks is zero:
D (v, Net(v,m)) = 0
D (v, Net(v,w)) = 0
D (v, Net(v,n)) = 0
c(v,m)
Net(v,m)
m

RoutingTable

c (v,w)
Net(v,w)
v

via
(next hop)

cost

w
c(v,n)
Net(v,n)

Dest
Net(v,m)

Net(v,w)

Net(v,n)

15

Initiating Routing Table II


RoutingTable
Dest

via

cost

(next hop)

Net(v,m)

Net(v,w)

Net(v,n)

New node v sends the routing table entry to all its neighbors:
[Net(v,n),0]
[ n,0 ]
[Net(v,w),0]
[w,0]
m
m

[Net(v,n),0]
[ n,0 ]
[Net(v,m),0]
[m,0]
v
v

w
w
[m,0]
[Net(v,m),0]
[w,0][Net(v,w),0]

n
n

16

Initiating Routing Table III


Node v receives the routing tables from other nodes and
builds up its routing table

[Net

[Net

,D(m,Net
,D(m,Net

)]
N

[Net

)]

[Net

1
N

,D(w,Net

,D(w,Net

)]
)]

w
[Net

,D(n,Net

)]

[Net

,D(n,Net

)]

17

Updating Routing Tables I


Suppose node v receives a message from node m: [Net,D(m,Net)]
[Net,D(m,Net)]

Net

c(v,m)
Net(v,m)

Node v updates its routing table and sends out further


messages if the message reduces the cost of a route:
if ( D(m,Net) + c (v,m) < D (v,Net) ) {
Dnew (v,Net) := D (m,Net) + c (v,m);
Update routing table;
send message [Net, Dnew (v,Net)] to all neighbors
}

18

Updating Routing Tables II


Before receiving the message:

RoutingTable

[Net,D(m,Net)]

Net

c(v,m)
Net(v,m)

Dest
v

via

cost

(next hop)

Net

??

D(v,Net)

Suppose D (m,Net) + c (v,m) < D (v,Net):


[Net,D

Net

c(v,m)
Net(v,m)

new

Dest

(v,Net)]

w
[Net,D

RoutingTable

new

Net

via

cost

(next hop)

new

(v,Net)

(v,Net)]

19

Assume: - link cost is 1, i.e., c(v,w) = 1


- all updates, updates occur simultaneously
- Initially, each router only knows the cost of
connected interfaces

10.0.3.0/24

10.0.4.0/24

.1

.1

.1

.2

Net

via

t=0:
10.0.1.0 10.0.2.0 t=1:
10.0.1.0 10.0.2.0 10.0.3.0 10.0.2.2
t=2:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0

10.0.2.2
10.0.2.2

cost

Router A

0
0

.2

Router B
Net

via

t=0:
10.0.2.0 10.0.3.0 -

Router C
Net

via

0
0

10.0.3.1
10.0.4.2

1
0
0
1

10.0.3.1
10.0.3.1
10.0.4.2

2
1
0
0
1

0
0
1

10.0.2.1
10.0.3.2

1
0
0
1

t=1:
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

0
0
1
2

t=2:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

10.0.2.1
10.0.3.2
10.0.3.2

1
0
0
1
2

t=2:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

.1

Router D

t=0:
10.0.3.0 10.0.4.0 -

t=1:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0

10.0.5.0/24

.2

cost

.2

10.0.2.0/24

cost

10.0.1.0/24

0
0

Net

via

cost

Example

t=0:
10.0.4.0 10.0.5.0 -

0
0

t=1:
10.0.3.0 10.0.4.1
10.0.4.0 10.0.5.0 -

1
0
0

t=2:
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

2
1
0
0

10.0.4.1
10.0.4.1
-

20

Example
10.0.3.0/24

10.0.4.0/24

.1

.1

.1

.2

via

t=2:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0

10.0.2.2
10.0.2.2

0
0
1
2

t=3:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

10.0.2.2
10.0.2.2
10.0.2.2

0
0
1
2
3

Net

via

.2

Router C
cost

Net

Router B

cost

Router A

.2

t=2:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

10.0.2.1
10.0.3.2
10.0.3.2

1
0
0
1
2

t=3:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

10.0.2.1
10.0.3.2
10.0.3.2

1
0
0
1
2

Net
t=2:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0
t=3:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

via
10.0.3.1
10.0.3.1
10.0.4.2

10.0.3.1
10.0.3.1
10.0.4.2

Now, routing tables have converged !

10.0.5.0/24

.1

Router D

2
1
0
0
1

2
1
0
0
1

Net

via

cost

.2

10.0.2.0/24

cost

10.0.1.0/24

t=2:
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

10.0.4.1
10.0.4.1
-

2
1
0
0

t=3:
10.0.1.0
10.0.2.0
10.0.3.0
10.0.4.0
10.0.5.0

10.0.4.1
10.0.4.1
10.0.4.1
-

3
2
1
0
0

21

Characteristics of Distance Vector Routing


Periodic Updates: Updates to the routing tables are sent at
the end of a certain time period. A typical value is 90 seconds.
Triggered Updates: If a metric changes on a link, a router
immediately sends out an update without waiting for the end
of the update period.
Full Routing Table Update: Most distance vector routing
protocol send their neighbors the entire routing table (not only
entries which change).
Route invalidation timers: Routing table entries are invalid if
they are not refreshed. A typical value is to invalidate an entry
if no update is received after 3-6 update periods.

22

The Count-to-Infinity Problem


1

AA
A's Routing Table
cost

(next hop)

CC

B's Routing Table

via

to

BB

via

to

(next hop)

cost

oo

oo

now link B-C goes down

2
C

2
oo

C
C

C
oo

4
C

oo

3
C

oo

23

Count-to-Infinity
The reason for the count-to-infinity problem is that each node
only has a next-hop-view
For example, in the first step, A did not realize that its route
(with cost 2) to C went through node B
How can the Count-to-Infinity problem be solved?

24

Count-to-Infinity
The reason for the count-to-infinity problem is that each node
only has a next-hop-view
For example, in the first step, A did not realize that its route
(with cost 2) to C went through node B
How can the Count-to-Infinity problem be solved?
Solution 1: Always advertise the entire path in an update
message (Path vectors)
If routing tables are large, the routing messages
require substantial bandwidth
BGP uses this solution
25

Count-to-Infinity
The reason for the count-to-infinity problem is that each node
only has a next-hop-view
For example, in the first step, A did not realize that its route
(with cost 2) to C went through node B
How can the Count-to-Infinity problem be solved?
Solution 2: Never advertise the cost to a neighbor if this
neighbor is the next hop on the current path (Split Horizon)
Example: A would not send the first routing update to B, since B
is the next hop on As current route to C
Split Horizon does not solve count-to-infinity in all cases!

26

RIP - Routing Information Protocol


A simple intradomain protocol
Straightforward implementation of Distance Vector Routing
Each router advertises its distance vector every 30 seconds
(or whenever its routing table changes) to all of its neighbors
RIP always uses 1 as link metric
Maximum hop count is 15, with 16 equal to
Routes are timeout (set to 16) after 3 minutes if they are not
updated

27

RIP - History
Late 1960s : Distance Vector protocols were used in the
ARPANET
Mid-1970s: XNS (Xerox Network system) routing protocol is
the precursor of RIP in IP (and Novells IPX RIP
and Apples routing protocol)
1982
Release of routed for BSD Unix
1988
RIPv1 (RFC 1058)
- classful routing
1993
RIPv2 (RFC 1388)
- adds subnet masks with each route entry
- allows classless routing
1998
Current version of RIPv2 (RFC 2453)

28

RIPv1 Packet Format


RIP Message

UDP header

1: request
2: response
2: for IP
00: request full routing table

Command

Version

Set to 00...0

address family

Set to 00.00
32-bit address
Unused (Set to 00...0)

Address of destination
Cost (measured in hops)
One RIP message can
have up to 25 route entries

1: RIPv1

Unused (Set to 00...0)


metric (1-16)

one route entry


(20 bytes)

IP header

Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)

32 bits

29

RIPv2
RIPv2 is an extends RIPv1:
Subnet masks are carried in the route information
Authentication of routing messages
Route information carries next-hop address
Exploites IP multicasting
Extensions of RIPv2 are carried in unused fields of RIPv1
messages

30

RIPv2 Packet Format


RIP Message

UDP header

1: request
2: response
2: for IP
00: request full routing table

Command

Version

Set to 00...0

address family

Set to 00.00
32-bit address
Unused (Set to 00...0)

Address of destination
Cost (measured in hops)
One RIP message can
have up to 25 route entries

2: RIPv2

Unused (Set to 00...0)


metric (1-16)

one route entry


(20 bytes)

IP header

Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)

32 bits

31

RIPv2 Packet Format


RIPv2 Message

UDP header

Used to carry information


from other routing
protocols (e.g.,
autonomous system
number)
Subnet mask for IP
address

Command

Version

Set to 00.00

address family

route tag
IP address
Subnet Mask
Next-Hop IP address

Identifies a better next-hop


address on the same
subnet than the advertising
router, if one exists
(otherwise 0.0)

2: RIPv2

metric (1-16)

one route entry


(20 bytes)

IP header

Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)

32 bits

32

RIP Messages
This is the operation of RIP in routed. Dedicated port for
RIP is UDP port 520.
Two types of messages:
Request messages
used to ask neighboring nodes for an update
Response messages
contains an update

33

Routing with RIP


Initialization: Send a request packet (command = 1, address
family=0..0) on all interfaces:
RIPv1 uses broadcast if possible,
RIPv2 uses multicast address 224.0.0.9, if possible
requesting routing tables from neighboring routers
Request received: Routers that receive above request send their entire
routing table
Response received: Update the routing table
Regular routing updates: Every 30 seconds, send all or part of the
routing tables to every neighbor in an response message
Triggered Updates: Whenever the metric for a route change, send entire
routing table.

34

RIP Security
Issue: Sending bogus routing updates to a router
RIPv1: No protection
RIPv2: Simple authentication scheme
RIPv2 Message

UDP header

Command

Version

2: plaintext
password
Set to 00.00

0xffff

Authentication Type

Password (Bytes 0 - 3)
Password (Bytes 4 - 7)
Password (Bytes 8- 11)
Password (Bytes 12 - 15)

Authetication

IP header

Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)

32 bits

35

RIP Problems

RIP takes a long time to stabilize


Even for a small network, it takes several minutes until the
routing tables have settled after a change
RIP has all the problems of distance vector algorithms, e.g.,
count-to-Infinity
RIP uses split horizon to avoid count-to-infinity

The maximum path in RIP is 15 hops

36