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CHAPTER 6

:VARIATION
6.1 Variation in organisms

Variation

The differences in a
particular characteristic
(phenotype) found within
a member of species

Examples of variation

Ability to roll tongue


Ear lobe type
Types of finger print
Dimples / non-dimpled cheeks
A long / short second toe
Body weight
Body height
Blood group

The importance of
variation
makes living
organisms different
from one another
help the organisms to
adapt to their
environment
increases chances
survival
contributes to the
formation of new
species

Types of variation
Variation in population can be studied by
measuring a chosen trait/characteristics in a large
number of different individuals

Two Types
of Variation
Continuous
variation

Discontinu
ous
variation

Continuous variation
Controlled by the
combined effect of
many genes
(polygenic)
Significantly
affected by
environmental
factors
E.g.
Height
Weight

Continuous variation
Graph a bell
shaped normal
distribution

Discontinuous Variation
Falls into a few
distinctive
phenotype/catego
ries
The trait is either
absent or
present
E.g
Dimple cheek
ABO blood group

Discontinuous Variation
Controlled by
one/few genes
Not affected by
environment
Graph
discrete /
categorical
distribution

Discontinuous Variation Examples

Discontinuous Variation Examples

Discontinuous Variation Examples

Discontinuous Variation Examples

Discontinuous Variation Examples