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Higher Maths

Revision Notes
goodbye

Functions and Graphs

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Functions and graphs


You should know the meaning of the terms domain and range of a function;

Recognise the probable


form of a function from
its graph
f : x sin (ax + b),

f: x ax
(a > 1 and 0 < a < 1, x R)

f : x cos (ax + b)

f: x logax
(a > 1, x > 0)

functions with
restricted domain

Polynomial functions

Composite function

Inverse of a function

Given the graph of f(x) draw the graphs


of related functions, where f(x) is a simple
Complete
the square.

polynomial or trigonometric function

Radian
measure.

y=sin(ax
y=sin(ax +
+ b)
b)
1.5
1.5
1
1

1.5
1.5

Shifttoleft

11

0.5
0.5

Shifttoleft

0.5
0.5
y-sin(ax+b)
y-sin(ax+b)
y-sin(b)
y-sin(b)

0
0

y=
y= cos(ax
cos(ax +
+ b)
b)
y=
y= cos(b)
cos(b)
yy =
= cos(ax)
cos(ax)

00

y=sin(ax)
y=sin(ax)
-0.5
-0.5

-0.5
-0.5

-1
-1

-1
-1

-1.5
-1.5

wavelength
wavelength

-1.5
-1.5

Inbothgraphs

a=360wavelength.

b=shifttothelefta.

wavelength
wavelength

thenumberofwavesin360.

Example:Findtheequationofthebluecurveifitisoftheformy=sin(ax+b).
1.5

Imaginetheredcurve,thecorrespondingfunction
oftheformy=sin(ax).

1
0.5
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-0.5

Thewavelengthis120
Theshifttotheleftis6040=20
a=360120=3

b=203=60
Thebluecurvehasequationy=sin(3x+60)

-1
-1.5

Test
Yourself?

Exponentialfunctions
y
y=
= a^x
a^x ;

y
y=
= a^x
a^x ;

a>1

0>a>1

y = ( 1a ) = ax
(1,a)
(0,1)

(0,1)

(1,a)

Logarithmicfunctions
y
y=
= log
logaax
x

Note:
Anexponentialfunctionisthe
inverseofthecorresponding
logarithmicfunction.

log a (a x ) = x

(a,1)
(1,0)

a log a x = x
Whena=e=271828
Test
Yourself?

thefunctioniscalledtheexponentialfunction.

Polynomial functions
polynomial
polynomial functions
functions 2
2
10
10

10
10

88

8
8

66

6
6

44
22
00
-5
-5

-4
-4

-3
-3

-2
-2

-1
-1

-2
-2

4
4

constant
constant
linear
linear
00

11

22

33

44

55

quadratic
quadratic

0
0
-4
-4

-4
-4
-6
-6

cubic
cubic (order
(order 3)
3)
quartic
quartic (order
(order 4)
4)

2
2

-3
-3

-2
-2

-1
-1

-2
-2

0
0

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

-4
-4

-8
-8
-10
-10

-6
-6

Ingeneralapolynomialofordernwillhaveatmostnrealrootsandatmost(n1)stationarypoints.
e.g.acubiccanhave,atmost,3realrootsand2s.p.s
Ifacubichas3realrootsa,bandcthenitsequationwillbeoftheformy=k(xa)(xb)(xc)wherekisaconstant.
Ifa,bandcareknownthenkcanbecalculatedifonepointthecurvepassesthroughisalsoknown.
Whenthebracketsareexpandedthecubicwillhavetheform
y=px3+qx2+rx+s,wherep,q,r,andsareconstantsandp0
Similarstatementscanbemadeoftheotherpolynomials.
Test
Yourself?

Constant:y=a
linear:y=ax+b
quadratic:y=ax2+bx+c
cubic:y=ax3+bx2+cx+d
quartic:y=ax4+bx3+cx2+dx+e

Restricteddomain
Reciprocal functions

Square root function

yy =
= a/x
a/x

yy =
= x
x

Others

3.5
3.5
33

y=tan(x)
thenx90,270
or90+180n
wherenisaninteger.

2.5
2.5
22
-5
-5

-4
-4

-3
-3

-2
-2

-1
-1

00

11

22

33

44

55

1.5
1.5
11
0.5
0.5
00
00

22

33

44

55

66

77

88

99

Thedenominatorcanneverequalzero.

Thetermwithintheradicalsignmustalwaysbe0

Soavalueofxwhichmakesthishappenisnot
inthedomain.

Soanyvalueofxwhichmakesthisnegativeisnotin
thedomain.

y=

11

a
; f (x) 0
f ( x)

For example
3
y=
thenx 2
x+2

y=

f (x); f (x) 0
y=sin1(x)
y=cos1(x)
then1x>1

For example

y = x + 3thenx 3

y=log(x)
thenx>0

Test
Yourself?

inverse

Iff(g(x))=xandg(f(x))=xforallxinthedomainthenwesaythatfistheinverseofgandviceversa.
Theinverseoffisdenotedbyf1.
Examples[oversuitabledomains]

f(x)=x2

f1(x)=x

f(x)=sin(x)

f1(x)=sin1(x)

f(x)=2x+3

f1(x)=(x3)/2

f(x)=loga(x)

f1(x)=ax

f(x)=ex

f1(x)=ln(x)

FortheHigherexamyouneednotknowhowtofindtheformulafortheinverseofanyfunction.

composites

Compositefunctions
Example
Supposewehavetwofunctions:f(x)=3x+4andg(x)=2x2+1.
Wecanusethesedefinitionstocreatenewfunctions:

f(f(x))

g(g(x))

=f(3x+4)

=g(2x2+1)

=3(3x+4)+4
=9x+16

f(g(x))

g(f(x))

=f(2x2+1)

=g(3x+4)

=2(2x +1) +1

=3(2x2+1)+4

=2(3x+4)2+4

=8x4+8x2+3

=6x2+7

=18x2+48x+36

Thingstonote:

Acompositioncanbemadefrommorethantwofunctions

Consideringexamples1and2leadstorecurrencerelationse.g.f(f(f(f(x)))))

Ingeneralf(g(x))g(f(x))theorderinwhichyoudothingsareimportant.

Ifeitherforghaverestrictionsontheirdomain,thiswillaffectthedomainofthecompositefunction.

Iff(g(x))=xforallxinthedomainthenwesaythatfistheinverseofgitcanbedenotedbyg1
Test
Yourself?

Related functions

y=f(x+a)

y=f(x)+a

[xtranslationofa]

[ytranslationofa]

y = f(x)
15

y=af(x)

10

[stretchinydirection]

y=f(x)
[reflectioninxaxis]

y=f(ax)
[squashinxdirection]

y=f(x)

0
-4

-3

-2

-1

-5
-10
-15

y=f1(x)

y=f(x)

[Theinverse]

[Thederivative]

Test
Yourself?

[reflectioninyaxis]

Completing the square


2

2
2
( x + a) = x + 2ax + a
2

x 2 + 2ax = ( x + a) a 2
Wecanusethisidentitytosimplifyquadraticexpressions.

Example1

Example2
(a)
Express3x2+12x+1intheforma(x+b)2c
(b)
Findthesmallestvaluetheexpressioncantake.

Expressx +6x+1intheform(x+a) +b
2

Givenx2+6x+1

(a)
Given3x2+12x+1,
Take3outasacommonfactorleavingthecoefficientofx2as1
So3(x2+4x)+1focusontheredtext.

Byinspectiona=62=3
Sox2+6x+1=(x+3)232+1

Byinspectiona=42=2
Soweget3(x2+4x)+1=3[(x+2)222]+1
=3(x+2)212+1
=3(x+2)211

=(x+3)28
Note:a=3andb=8

Test
Yourself?

Thesmallestaperfectsquarecanbeiszero.
Sothesmallesttheexpressioncanbeis011=11.
Thshappenswhenx=2.

radians

R
1radian
R

Wecanmeasureangle
sizeusingthedegree
(901rightangle)

degree

radian

Wecanmeasureanglesize
usingthegrad
(100grads1rightangle)

180

180

Thevaluesareoftengivenintermsof.

Mathematiciansfinditconvenient
tousetheradian.
(/2radians=1rightangle.

30 = 6 radians
60= 3 radians

Test
Yourself?

90= 2 radians
45= 4 radians
180= radians

radian

degree

y=f(x+a)
[xtranslationofa]

y = f(x+1)
15

10
5
0

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-5
-10
-15

y=f(x)+a
[ytranslationofa]

y = f(x)-5
15
10
5
0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-5
-10
-15

y = f(x)
15
10

y=f(x)
[reflectioninxaxis]

5
0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-5
-10
-15

y = f(x)
15
10
5

y=f(x)

0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-5
-10
-15

[reflectioninyaxis]

Stationarypointsofthefunctioncorrespondto
zerosofthederivedfunction.
Negatvegradientsofthefunctioncorrespondto
Partsabovetheaxisonthederivedfunction.

Positivegradientsofthefunctioncorrespondto
Partsbelowtheaxisonthederivedfunction.

y = f'(x)
15

10

-2

-1

0
-3

+
-4

-5
-10

Gradientofthefunctionisshowninred
-15

y=f(x)
[Thederivative]

+
2

Whenafunctionhasaninversethen,if(x,y)liesonthegraphofthefunction,
(y,x)liesonthegraphoftheinversefunction.
oneisthereflectionoftheotherintheliney=x.
Inverse of a function
7
6
5
function

y=x
3

inverse

2
1
0
0

7
inverse of a function
15

y=f1(x)

10

[Theinverse]

function
5

y=x
inverse

0
-5

-5

10

15

Notethattheexample
functiondoesnothave
aninverse.The
reflectioniny=xhas,
forexample,3values
correspondingtox=5.

y = f(2x)
15
10
5

y=f(ax)
[squashinxdirection]

0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-5
-10
-15

y = 3f(x)
15

y=af(x)

10

[stretchinydirection]

5
0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-5
-10
-15

Usingsuitableunits,thedistanceofthetipoftherotor
tothetailofahelicoptercanbecalculatedusingaformulaoftheform
D=3sin(ax+b)+10.Thegraphisshownbelow.
Whatarethevaluesofaandb

Rotor Distance
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

reveal

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

Usingsuitableunits,thedistanceofthetipoftherotor
tothetailofahelicoptercanbecalculatedusingaformulaoftheform
D=3sin(ax+b)+10.Thegraphisshownbelow.

Note:
The10translatesthesinewave10unitsup.
The3stretchesthewavebyafactorof3in
theydirection.

Whatarethevaluesofaandb

Rotor Distance

Thewavelength,byinspection,is120.
a=360120=3

14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Onewouldexpectthefirstpeakof
y=sin(3x)tooccurat903=30.
Itoccursat15.Thustheshifttotheleft
is3015=15.
Sob=shifta=153=45.
0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

Theequationis:
D=3sin(3x+45)+10

350

300

250

200

150

reveal

100

50

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

TheprofileoftheEiffeltowercanbemodelledbytheformula
y=aln(bx)
whereaandbareconstantsandymistheheightofaspotonthe
profileandxisitsdistancemeasuredhorizontallyfromthecentre.
Wheny=0,x=63.Wheny=42,x=40.
Findthevaluesofaandb.

350

300

Wheny=0,x=63

250

y=aln(bx)
0=aln(63b)
ln(63b)=0
63b=1
b=1/63

200

150

Wheny=42,x=40
y=aln(bx)
42=aln(4063)
42=a0454255(calculator)
a=92(tonearestwholenumber)

100

50

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Eiffeltowercanbemodelledby
TheprofileoftheEiffeltowercanbemodelledbytheformula
y=aln(bx)
whereaandbareconstantsandymistheheightofaspotonthe
profileandxisitsdistancemeasuredhorizontallyfromthecentre.
Wheny=0,x=63.Wheny=42,x=40.
Findthevaluesofaandb.

y=92ln(x/63)

Itfitswhereittouches.

1.5

0.5
sine

0
-3

-2

-1

cubic

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Ascanbeseeninthegraph,thereisasimplecubicfunction
whichfor1>x>1,andworkinginradians,behaves
almostthesameasthesinewave.i.e.
sin(x)px3+qx2+rx+swherep,q,r,andsareconstants.

Therootsofthiscubicare6and0.Expressthecubic
intermsofitsfactorsviz.k(xa)(xb)(xc).

Weknowsin(/6)=1/2.Usethistofindkasasimple
fractionwithaunitnumerator.

reveal

Itfitswhereittouches.

1.5

(a)

y = k(x 0)( x 6 )( x + 6 )

0.5

0
-3

-2

-1

= kx ( x 2 6)

sine
0

cubic

-0.5

-1

(b)

1
2

-1.5

? k = 16

Ascanbeseeninthegraph,thereisasimplecubicfunction
whichfor1>x>1,andworkinginradians,behaves
almostthesameasthesinewave.i.e.
sin(x)px3+qx2+rx+swherep,q,r,andsareconstants.

Therootsofthiscubicare6and0.Expressthecubic
intermsofitsfactorsviz.k(xa)(xb)(xc).

Weknowsin(/6)=1/2.Usethistofindkasasimple
fractionwithaunitnumerator.

?
? 2
= k ? 6? 3k
6 ?36 ?

Afunctionisdefinedbyf:x(x2x2)
Findthelargestpossibledomainforthefunction.

reveal

Afunctionisdefinedbyf:x(x2x2)
Findthelargestpossibledomainforthefunction.

Thefunctionwithintheradicalsignmust
begreaterthanorequaltozero.

x2 x 2 0
( x 2)( x + 1) 0
y=x2 x 2
3

(x x

1
0

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

-3

Thesketchofthisquadratictellsusthat
x2orx1.

2
1
0
-3

-2

-1

0
-1

Thesketchontheleftshowsthefunction
inquestion.

f(x)=2x1andg(x)=x2+2.

Findanexpressionforf(g(x).

Ingeneralf(g(x))g(f(x)).
However,inthiscasetherearetwovaluesofx
forwhichf(g(x))=g(f(x)).
Findthesevalues.

reveal

f(x)=2x1andg(x)=x2+2.

Findanexpressionforf(g(x).

Ingeneralf(g(x))g(f(x)),

(a)

however,inthiscasetherearetwovaluesofx
forwhichf(g(x))=g(f(x)).

f(g(x)=f(x2+2)
=2(x2+2)1
=2x2+3

Findthesevalues.

g(f(x))=g(2x1)
=(2x1)2+2
=4x24x+3
g(f(x))=f(g(x)

(a)

4x24x+3=2x2+3

(b)

2x24x=0

(c)

x(x2)=0

(d)

x=0orx=2

y = f(x)
5
4
3
2

(075,1)

1
0
-2

-1

-1

-2
-3
-4
-5

reveal
Thesketchshowspartofthefunctiony=f(x)
(a)

Drawasketchof(i)y=f(x)(ii)y=f(1x)

(b)

Makeasketchofy=f(x)

y = f(x)
5
y = f(-x)

(a(i))

5
4

(075,1)

3
2

0
-2

-1

-1

y = f(x)

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

-1

0.5

-3

-3

-5

1.5

y = f(-x)

2.5

-2

-2

-4

y=f(1-x)

-4
5

-5

(a(ii))

4
3
2
1

y=f(x)
y=f(-x)

0
-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

Thesketchshowspartofthefunctiony=f(x)

-1

0.5

1.5

2.5

y=f(1-x)

-2
-3
-4
-5

(a)

Drawasketchof(i)y=f(x)(ii)y=f(1x)

(b)

Makeasketchofy=f(x)

(b)

y=f'(x)
5
4
3
2
1
y=f(x)

0
-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

0.5

1.5

2.5

y=f'(x)

Wherecompletingthesquareisuseful

Q1

Findthemaximumvalueofthefunctiondefinedby:

1
f :x 2
x + 4x + 9

Q2

reveal

Provethaty=3x3+3x2+5x+1
isanincreasingfunction.

Wherecompletingthesquareisuseful

Q1

Findthemaximumvalueofthefunctiondefinedby:

Q1

InHighermathsyoudontknowhowto
differentiatethisfunction.
Completethesquareonthedenominator:

1
f :x 2
x + 4x + 9

x2+4x+9=(x+2)222+9=(x+2)2+5.
Thesmallestthisexpressioncanbeiswhen
thebrackettakesthevaluezero
Whenx=2,theexpressionisworth5.
Thisiswhenthefunctionwillbeatitsbiggest.

f(2)=1/5

Q2
Q2

Provethaty=3x3+3x2+5x+1
isanincreasingfunction.

Toprovethefunctionisalwaysincreasing,you
havetoprovethatthederivativeisalwayspositive.
dy
= 9x 2 + 6x + 5
dx
Completethesquare:
9x 2 + 6x + 5 = 9[ x 2 + 69 x ] + 5 = 9[ x 2 + 23 x ] + 5

2
2
2
= 9[( x + 13 ) ( 13 ) ] + 5 = 9[( x + 13 ) 19 ] + 5
2

= 9( x + 13 ) 1+ 5
2

= 9( x + 13 ) + 4

Theminimumvalueofthederivativeis4.
Thusitsalwayspositiveandthus
Alwaysincreasing.

Manyrepetitivesituationscanbemodelledbythesinefunction.
Usingsuitableunitsthedistanceofthestarfromthecentreof
thepicturecanbemodelledbyD=2sinxwherexismeasured
inradians.

reveal

Solvetheequation2sinx=1for0x4

Manyrepetitivesituationscanbemodelledbythesinefunction.
Usingsuitableunitsthedistanceofthestarfromthecentreof
thepicturecanbemodelledbyD=2sinxwherexismeasured
inradians.

2sin x = 1
sin x = 12
x = 6 or 6 =

6
6

6 =

5
6

oranynumberofcompleterevolutions
more(orless)thanthesetwosolutions

x = 6 or 56 or2 + 6 or2 + 56
or4 + 6 or4 + 56
x = 6 , 56 , 13
, 17
, 25
, 29
6
6
6
6

Solvetheequation2sinx=1for0x4

Allotheranswersareoutsidethedesiredrange.