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Electrical

safety
29 CFR 1926
Sub part K

Current -- electrical movement (measured in


amps)
Circuit -- complete path of the current.
Includes electricity source, a conductor, and the
output device or load (such as a lamp, tool, or
heater)
Resistance -- restriction to electrical flow
Conductors substances, like metals, with little
resistance to electricity that allow electricity to flow
Grounding a conductive connection to the
earth which acts as a protective measure
Insulators -- substances with high resistance to
electricity like glass, porcelain, plastic, and dry
wood that prevent electricity from getting to
unwanted areas

Electricity How it
Works
Electricity is the flow
of energy from one
place to another
Requires a source of
power: usually a
generating station
A flow of electrons
(current) travels
through a conductor
Travels in a closed
circuit

Primary Hazards
Electric
Electric
Electric
Electric

shock
fire & explosion
flash
burns

Causing 1.Death
2. Jolt Temporary paralysis

Secondary Hazards
Person falling from height
Dropping of tools & objects
Health hazards due to release of toxic
gas & production of UV rays
Psychological effects
Emotionally anxious
Distracted
More prone to accidents

Electric Shock
It is sudden & accidental
stimulation of the bodys nervous
system by electric current. It is the
result of passage of electric
current through the human body

Shock Severity
Severity of the shock
depends on:
Path of current through

the body
Amount of current
flowing through the body
(amps)
Duration of the shocking
current through the
body,
LOW VOLTAGE DOES NOT
MEAN LOW HAZARD

Body Resistance
Body areaResistance
(ohms)
Dry skin 1,00,000 to
6,00,000
Wet skin 1000
Internal body
Hand foot
400 to 600

Burns
Most common shockrelated injury
Occurs when you touch
electrical wiring or
equipment that is
improperly used or
maintained
Typically occurs on hands
Very serious injury that
needs immediate
attention

Falls
Electric shock can
also cause indirect
injuries
Workers in elevated
locations who
experience a shock
may fall, resulting in
serious injury or
death

How Shock Occurs

1] By simultaneously touching the


phase and neutral conductor thus
completing the circuit through his body
Y

ALERNATOR
B
LOAD HAVING
METALLIC BODY

R
N

2]. By touching the phase conductor


and standing on the ground

ALTERNATOR
B
ELEC. EQPT.HAVING
METALLIC BODY
R

3]. By touching a metallic part that


has become live by itself being in
contact with an energised wire
Y

ALTERNATOR
B
ELEC. EQPT.HAVING
METALLIC BODY
R

Shock Protection
Methods
Isolation
Current limitation
Low voltage
Double insulation
Earthing

Isolation
All electrical equipment should be
isolated from accidental contact &
approach by unauthorised men.by
Providing barrier
Panel boards, generators, large
motors, batteries should be
enclosed
Low & medium voltage OH lines
should be kept @20 above the
ground

Control Isolate Electrical


Parts
Use guards or
barriers
Replace covers

Guard live parts of electric


equipment operating at 50 volts or
more against accidental contact

Hazard Exposed Electrical


Parts

Cover removed from wiring or


breaker box

Control Isolate Electrical


Parts - Cabinets, Boxes &
Fittings

Conductors going into them must be


protected, and unused openings
must be closed

Isolation Switches

The switches should be connected in phase only


The switches should be easy and free to operate
Body of the metallic switches should be earthed
Every DB should be provided with a switch
It is advisable to keep switch as near as possible
to the work-place

POWER
SOURCE

Double Insulation
Another insulation added.
Double insulated power tools have nonmetallic body
Need not be earthed (two point plug is
sufficient)

Insulation

Functional

Protective

Hazard - Overhead Power


Lines
Usually not
insulated
Examples of
equipment that can
contact power lines:
Crane
Ladder
Scaffold
Backhoe
Scissors lift
Raised dump truck

bed

Check in General for

Neutral earthing (In case of X-mer or


DG)
Protective shed
Body earthling
Earth pit for body earthing
Earth resistance
Fuses
Loose connection of cable
Housekeeping
Fire extinguisher and type

PLUG TOPS

PLUG TOPS SHOULD BE USED TO AVOID SHOCK


DANGERS.

THREE POINT PLUG IN CASE OF METALLIC BODY


HAND TOOLS AND TWO POINT PLUG IN CASE OF
DOUBLE INSULATED HAND TOOLS.

METALLIC BODY

HAND TOOL

Earthing
Proper earthing
DBs
Earthing for the DBs

Fuses
Fuses are proven safety devices for
overload conditions
Check the fuses for their current ratings
Never replace fuse wire with ordinary
copper or aluminium wire
High rupturable cartridge fuses are now
a days easily available and has
advantages over traditional fuses

ELCB
(EARTH LEAKAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER)

For portable power tools power supply is taken


through ELCB
Saves persons from electric shock
POWER
SUPPLY

ELCB

SWITCH
BOX

Person in
touch
with
faulty
eqpt.
Having
elec.
Charges
on its
body

It opens the circuit when it senses leakage


current from earth.

Causes of Electric fire


Selection of improper/substandard
equipment and materials.
Electrical installation not in accordance
with statutory regulations.
Overloading of equipment.
Maintenance negligence.
Failure of insulation level.
Damage due to rodents, termites and pests.
Lightning.
Water seepage.
Static electricity.

Maintenance negligence
Temporary electrical connection
Bad switch contacts
Improper substitution of electrical
equipment and materials
Allowing equipment for regular usage
after repairs without complete check-up
Non-protection against mechanical
damages.

Cable Routing
All electrical cables should be run
either overhead or underground
Cable routing layout map to be
prepared so that it does not cause
tripping hazards
Welding and power cables not to
be overlapped

Cables
Single phase supply
Phase - red
Neutral - black
Earth - green

Three phase supply


Phases
Red
Yellow
Blue

Neutral - black

PROTECTING CABLES FROM


DAMAGES
Protection against mech.
Damages
Protection against heat
Cables should be laid away from
welding cables

Cable Joints
Staggered joints
CABLE 1
3/4

3/4

3/4

3/4

CABLE 2

Joints are not to be overlapped


One primary insulation and an overall

secondary insulation is to be done


Proper insulation tape are to be used

Hazard Defective Cords &


Wires
Plastic or
rubber covering
is missing
Damaged
extension cords
& tools

Hazard Damaged Cords


Cords can be damaged
by:
Aging
Door or window edges
Staples or fastenings
Abrasion from adjacent

materials
Activity in the area

Improper use can


cause shocks, burns or
fire

Permissible Use of Flexible


Cords
DO NOT use flexible wiring where
frequent inspection would be difficult
or where damage would be likely.
Flexible cords must not be . . .
run through holes in walls, ceilings,
or floors;
run through doorways, windows, or
similar openings (unless physically
protected);
hidden in walls, ceilings, floors,
conduit or other raceways.

Stationary equipment-to
facilitate interchange

Grounding
Grounding creates a
low-resistance path
from a tool to the
earth to disperse
unwanted current.
When a short or
lightning occurs,
energy flows to the
ground, protecting
you from electrical
shock, injury and
death.

Power Tool
Requirements
Have a three-wire

cord with ground


plugged into a
grounded receptacle,
or
Be double insulated,
or
Be powered by a lowvoltage isolation
transformer

Preventing Electrical Hazards Tools


Inspect tools
before use
Use the right
tool correctly
Protect your
tools
Use double
insulated tools

Double Insulated marking

Temporary Lights

Protect from contact and damage, and


dont suspend by cords unless designed
to do so.

Lockout and Tagging of


Circuits
Apply locks to power source
after de-energizing
Tag deactivated controls
Tag de-energized equipment
and circuits at all points
where they can be energized
Tags must identify
equipment or circuits being
worked on

Safety-Related
Work Practices
To protect workers from
electrical shock:
1. Use barriers and guards to

prevent passage through


areas of exposed
energized equipment
2. Pre-plan work, post
hazard warnings and use
protective measures
3. Keep working spaces and
walkways clear of cords

Avoid Wet Conditions


o If you touch a live wire or
other electrical component
while standing in even a small
puddle of water youll get a
shock.
o Damaged insulation,
equipment, or tools can
expose you to live electrical
parts.
o Improperly grounded metal
switch plates & ceiling lights
are especially hazardous in
wet conditions.
o Wet clothing, high humidity,
and perspiration increase your
chances of being
electrocuted.

Manpower
Employ qualified electrician,
preferably license holders
Identification of the electrician red helmet

Electrical Safety
Display electrical equipment & cable
routing layout
All electrical installation to be tested &
commissioned as per BIS codes
All DBs should be covered
Earthing of all electrical installations
Regular maintenance

ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Display caution boards
Provide ELCB for portable
equipment
24 V hand lamp
Follow rules and regulations
Follow safety measures
discussed.
Adopt protective system
Regular inspection

Thanks