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ARVIND LIMITED

TEXTILE INTERNSHIP REPORT


An effort by:
Bhupinder Pawar
Divyanshu Sagar
Shashank Sachan
Shikhar Maurya
Tushty Choudhary
Department of Fashion Technology, Apparel Production
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kangra

About Arvind
Arvind Limited(formerlyArvind Mills) is atextile
manufacturerand theflagshipcompany of the Lalbhai Group.
Itsheadquartersis inAhmedabad,Gujarat,India. It
manufacturescottonshirting,denim,knitsand bottom weights
(Khakis) fabrics.
It is India's largest denim manufacturerapart from being
worlds fourth-largest producer and exporter of denim.

Aim
The project is based on a 2 weeks internship, in Arvind
Mills Shirting Department. It covers all the information
and learning experiences related to manufacturing of
textiles, fine shirting fabric in this case and all the
processes involved namely:
Spinning
Dyeing
Warp Preparation
Weaving
Finishing
Testing

Singeing(optional)
Two For One (T.F.O)
Assembly Winding(plied yarns)
Winding
Ring Frames
Speed Frames
Post-Drawing
Combing

Spinning Department

Unilap Machines
Pre-Drawing
Carding
Blow Room (Bale opening, cleaning)

Blow Room
The basic purpose of Blow room is to supply
Small fibre tufts
Clean fibre tufts
Homogeneously blended tufts (if more than one
variety of fibre is used)
to carding machine without increasing fibre rupture,
fibre neps, broken seed particles and without
removing more good fibres.

Machines Used
1. For Extracting Raw Cotton : Trutzschler
Blendomat
BDT 019
Cotton is passed from bales and then to
apron. Apron moves cotton to blending apron.
Blending apron has sharp spikes the raise
cotton until part of it is knocked off by the
roll. Some of the cotton stays on apron.
Another roll strips off cotton that was not
knocked back by previous roll. Cotton falls on
conveyor belt and is carried to next process
that is blending through an overhead duct.
There was only one such machine there.

Machines Used
2. For Opening: Trutzschler BO 046
Lint cotton falls on apron and passes
between feeder rolls to beater cylinder.
The rapidly whirling beater blades take
off small tufts of cotton, knock out trash,
and loosen up the mass. Air suction
through cotton takes out dirt and trash.
It is necessary in order to loosen hard
lumps of fiber and disentangle them and
to press the raw fibre in a temporary lap.
There were three such machines there.

Machines Used
3. Axi flow cleaner or AFC : Trutzschler 0522502
Objective of AFC is separation of heavy
parts (impurities) from cotton. The opened
up mass of fiber rotates around two
cleaning rollers (beaters) with cylinder
steel pins which beat the fiber material,
allowing the coarse particles to be
separated.
The speed range ofthe beaters varies
from 400-600 rpm.
There were three such machines there.

Machines Used
4. ASTA : Trutzschler ASTA 800
Objective of ASTA is Heavy trash
separation from cotton.
Heavy particles are removed away from
the lighter fibers by negative
acceleration and the force of gravity.
The lower channel generates an opulent
air stream in the area of baffle plates,
which guides the fibers to the outlet.
There were three such machines there.

Machines Used
5. DUSTEX : Trutzschler CVT-4 1600
Dust removal is not an easy operation
since the dust particles are
completely enclosed in the flocks &
henceare back during suction.
The suction unitsremove dust 64%
dust.
There were three such machines
there.

Machines Used
6. LOPTEX Breaker and Finisher
These are basically used to remove
some foreign impurities that might
have adhered to the cotton fibre right
from the start of the ginning process.
There were six such machines there.

Carding
Carding is the process of removing impurities from fibers and
producing a carded sliver of parallelized and straightened fibers.

Drawing
Drawing is the process where the
fibres are blended, straightened and
the number of fibres in the sliver
increased in order to achieve the
desired linear density in the
spinning process.
The drawing process also improves
the uniformity or evenness of the
sliver.

Machines Used
Make of
machine

No. of
machi
ne

Input

Output

Rieter

8*5500
m

8*7500m

Rieter RSB.1

8*6500
m

10*6500m

Rieter Unilap
E30

24*5500
m

40 tapes

SB951(Swiss)

The length of each tape/ lap obtained from the unilap machine is 260
m and the width of the tape is 302 mm.

Combing
In general, combing is done to remove the
short length fibers. For example fiber shorter than
21mm.
The comb is a filter or sieve for short fiber length.
Combing is a mechanical sieve and will not
remove any containment that looks like a fiber
being combed.

Machines Used
Make of the
machine

No. of
machines

Input

output

Rieter E60

15

8 laps

4x6500m/ 4
hours

Speed frame (Rovings)


The roving sliver is thick and untwisted.
Because of it hairiness and fly is created. So
draft is needed to reduce the linear density
of sliver.
The ring drafting arrangement is not capable
that it may process the roving sliver to make
the yarn.
Draw frame can represent the worst
conceivable mode of transport and
presentation of feed material to the ring
spinning frame without rovings.

Machines Used
They were using three types of speed frame machines:
Toyota, LR, Ginser.
LR m/c had 144 spindles running at an RPM of 800-900 and
the Toyota and Ginser had 120 spindles and were running
at an RPM of 1000-1100.
More finer counts like 82s, 95s were being made on LR
machine.
Toyota machines were used for count range below 60s.

Ring frame (Bobbins)


A ring framewas constructed from cast
iron, and later pressed steel. On
eachsideof the frame are thespindles,
above them aredrafting rollersand on
top is a creel loaded with bobbins of roving.
Here the back roller steadied the incoming
thread, while the front rollers rotated faster,
pulling the roving out and making the fibres
more parallel.

Machines Used
Make of the Machine

Spool Capacity

No. Of Machines

Lakshmi Spinpro 9A

1008

30

LMW RJ 9/AX

960

Winding
The main purpose of winding
machines that they were using is to
transfer the ring yarn obtained
from ring spinning into a cone form.
These machines were installed with
LOEPFE YARN MASTER, which is
used for detecting the unwanted
presence of neps, foreign matter,
colour contamination and hairiness.

Machines Used
Make of the Machine

Spool Capacity

No. Of Machines

SSM X3
Oerlikon Schlafhorst Autoconer 5X3

42 Spools
60 Spools

7
4

Muratec Machconer No. 7-v

60 Spools

Two-For-One Twisting(TFO)
The process of twisting is an
indispensable means of improving
certain yarn properties and satisfying
textile requirements that cannot be
fulfilled by the single yarns.
The method of twisting two or more
single yarns is called doubling or
folding or ply twisting. Such yarns are
designated as doubled yarn, folded
Machines
Used
yarn or plied
yarn
Make of the Machine
Saurer VTS-08
Saurer VTS-09

Spool Capacity
200 Spools
200 Spools

No. Of Machines
18
6

Singeing
Singeing of a yarn is done in order to obtain
a clean yarn surface which allows the
structure of the fabric tobe clearly seen.
SSM GSX3 and PEASS were used for yarn
singeing running at a speed of 1500m/min
and a maximum take up package width of
280mm.
RJK high speed cone/cheese winding was
being used for removing the adhered burnt
particles from the yarn surface and provides
a final finish to the yarn surface.

Machines Used
Make of the machine

No. of machines

SSM GSX3

PEASS Indus Eng. Ltd.

RJK High Speed cone/cheese

winding

Rewinding
Q.A Check
R.F Dryer
Hydro Extractor
Package Dyeing (Scouring, Bleaching,
Dyeing, After Treatment)

Yarn Dyeing Department

Pressing Machine (Loading/Unloading)


Soft Winding

Soft Winding
The soft package winding is the
most important pre dying
operation, which directly affects not
only the dyeing quality but also
post dyeing operations such as
rejects, wastages and poor
unwinding, thread breakages etc.
Well wound is half dyed, is the
popular saying which is very correct
in the context of package dyeing.

Pressing (Loading/Unloading)
Pressing is done usually to compress the soft package and prepares
it for subsequent chemical operations. An over head dye press is
used for this purpose which exerts an approx pressure of 132 psi and
compresses the soft package by 15%.
At first the packages are loaded on the spindles and then pressed
together. This is known as loading. These compressed packages are
then sent for dyeing.
After the completion of dyeing, these packages are again brought to
the pressing area and then previously exerted pressure is released.
This is known as unloading.

Package Dyeing

It is slightly different from woven


or knits dyeing. Dyed yarns are
used for making striped woven or
knits fabric or solid dyed yarn
fabric or in sweater manufacturing.

In arvind, they were using HTHP


package dyeing machines for yarn
dyeing and the dyeing section is
divided into 4 phases on the basis
of the machines capacity.

Hydro Extractor
Hydro extractorsare machines
which are used inprocessing industry.
The wet material is placed in the
extractor, which has a wall of
perforated metal, generallystainless
steel.
The internal drum rotates at high
speed thus throwing out
thewatercontained in it.

Machines Used
Make of the machine

R.P.M

No. of machines

STALAM RZT-60

1530

Warping Department
Definition:
The parallel winding of warp ends from manywindingpackages
(cone, cheese) on to a common package (warp beam) is called
warping.
Objective:
To arrange a convenient number of warp yarns of related length so
that they can be collect on a single warp beam as a continuous
sheet of yarns which can be used forsizingor next process.
Importance:
Construction of a beam of parallel warp yarns, Modifying the faults of
yarn like thick or thin place, Winding the pre- determined length of
yarn, Combination of small packages, Accelerating the next process.

Direct Warping
Features:
It is used to make common fabrics in large
quantities
It is used to produce weavers beam from
single yarn
The production is high
Large amount of yarn is required to produce
a weavers beam.
Simple flanged beam is used and drums are
not required

Sectional Warping
Features:
This is suitable for making checked, stripped
or other fancy fabric.
In this case sections of the warp which may
contain up to 1000 ends are first wound onto a
drum tapered with a given cone angle.
Small amount of yarn is required to produce
the weavers beam.
Sectional warping is used to produce a warp
beam with a greater number of ends.

Sizing Department
Purpose:
To improve the weave ability of warp yarn by making it more
resistance to action of weaving like absorption, friction, tension, etc.
Tensile or breaking strength of cellulosic yarn is increased by sizing.
Elasticity of the yarn is also increased.
By adding size materials yarn weight is increased.
To increase the frictional resistance.
Projected fibres are removed by this process.
To reduce electrostatic charge formation.

Property of a sized
yarn

Higher elasticity
Higher yarn strength
Lower flexibility
Lower extension or elongation
Lower frictional resistance
Increased smoothness
Less weaknesses
Insensible to over drying
Less hairiness

Machines Used
Make of the Machine

No. of Machines

Ukil

Sucker Muller SD-C

13

(hacoba)

Karl Mayer

Weaving Department
The waving machines are named after their
filling insertion system. Schematics of the filling
insertion systems that are used in the market
are:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

Shuttle
Projectile
Rigid rapier
Flexible rapier
Air jet
Water jet

Air Jet Looms Or Air Jet Weft Insertion System


Advantages
High productivity
Reduced hazard because of few
moving parts
Low noise and vibration
To increase the production of loom
by increasing the speed and by
increasing the width of loom
Almost all loom motions are being
controlled electronically
Fully automatic lubrication system
Produce 100% export quality goods

In Arvind Shirting Division, they had 5 weaving divisions known as


Classical-1 to Classical-5.
They were using Toyota air jet looms both cam(max 8 harness) and
dobby(16 harness).
For example: For a 40s count and oxford weave of a particular
length:
Production: 0.37 m/min

Production/shift: 167 m

Efficiency (shift): 89%


Picks Per Inch: 60
Total Ends: 9648
Tension: 200 Kgf
Width: 2 m

Efficiency (day): 93.8%


Ends per Inch: 144
Maximum weft: 6
Speed: 850 picks/minute

WIR: 1700 m/min

Machines Used
Make of the machine

Toyota JAT 710 eurotech (airjet looms)

STAUBLI Delta 110 (for drawing in)

No. of machines

150

his department churns out 50000 meters of Shirting fabric a

Processing/Finishing Department
1. HIGH SALES APPEAL: To impart properties
of attractive appearance, supple handle,
softness and good drape.
2. HIGH WEAR QUALITY: This refers to
adequate tensile and abrasion strengths,
dimensional stability, crease recovery and
freedom from pilling.
3. BODY PROTECTION AND COMFORT: This
relates to proper heat insulation, moisture
absorption and air permeability.
4. SPECIAL EFFECTS: These include waterrepellency, reduced flammability, mildew
and moth-proofing, anti-static behaviour

Processing/Finishing Department
1. After batching, fabric is sent for singeing and
desizing.
2. Then the roll is packed in plastic and kept for
8 hours (continuously rotating) for the
enzymatic action to take place.

3. The roll is then sent to Injecta Washer to


remove the enzymes and washed with
water
4. After washing it is sent for mercerization.
5. If bleaching is required, they are fed to
the continous bleaching range(CBR).
6. For heat setting, they are fed to stenter
and curing machines.
7. Then they are sent to sanforization &

Inspection and Quality Assurance Department


Quality
Assurance

Testing

Physical
Testing

Chemical
Testing

Shade
testing

Inspection

Process
Control

Certificatio
n and
Accreditati
on

In process

Final

Inspection and Quality Assurance Department


Inspection department uses 17 Kitamura Machine to
find such defects in fabrics.
The inspection frame is aligned at an angle between
45 and 60 degrees.
Speed of fabric on inspection m/c: 25m/min
Light of 100 Lux
Inclination: 57

4-point grading system is used for inspection of


fabrics
Size of defect

Penalty Points

3 or less

1 Point

3 to 6

2 Points

6 to 9

3 Points

More than 9

4 Points

Holes or Openings(Largest Dimension)

1 or less

2 Points

More than 1

4 Points

Common defects found:


Spinning related
Defects:
Warp Slub
Weft Slub
Thick end
Coarse/fine weft
Weft bar

Weaving
Preparatory
Related Defects:
Knot
Slack end
Ball formation
Size patches

Weaving
Related Defects:
Starting mark
Tight end
Weft float
Knot
Repaired warp
Double end/pick

Bowing and Skewing


Check for skewed, bowed and biased fabric. For this purpose the
bowing and skewing are checked at every 10 meters.
Bow: A bow is an uneven deviation of a weft from a line drawn
perpendicular to the selvedge of the fabric.
Skew is a straight line deviation of a weft from a line drawn
perpendicular to the selvedgeof the fabric.
If the average Bowing or Skewing for a roll is more than 2-3%, reject
the roll.

Testing Department
The quality department and their testing procedures were
accredited by Next, Ralph & Lauran, Levis, Mexx, Marks &
Spencer, Debenhams, Nordstrom, Bureau Veritas, etc.
The samples are tested for/by:
Tensile Seam Strength: Titan Machine
Tear strength : Elmatear
Abrasion/Pilling : Martindle

Testing Department
For Shrinkage change in temple marks
are noticed after washing.
Shade matching is done in a dark room
using Verivide CAC 150, Gretagma C
beth Spectralight III.
To check the durability of resin finish,
the fabric sample was repeatedly
washed and the smoothness appearance
(SA) is recorded. Maximum SA of cotton
is 3.5

Testing Department
Washing fastness: Gyrowash machine
was used. Temperature varied from 4048C.
Crocking fastness: Jamesheal
crockmeter.
Light colorfastness: ATLAS XENOTEST
220.
Washing Machines: 2 electrolux front
loading machines. & 6 top loading
whirlpool machines.

Testing Department
Minimum Accepted levels:
Minimum Tensile strength: 25 l
Minimum Tear Strength: 1.5
lbs
Minimum Shade change : >4 Minimum Staining : >3
Minimum Seam Slippage: 15 lbs
Minimum Dimensional
Stability: <3%

Packaging Department

Details on the packages:


Shipment no.
Opt no.
Date
Rolls of approximate 135m each, sealed
Sort no
by polythene. This may change according
F.M.C
to buyer requirement.
Code no
Spec. of polythene cover: Plastic bags of
Meters
23 micron used
Flags/points

Thank You