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08/12/15

DRFU and DTRU


Training
Liu Qiang (ID: 00133269)
RF Enhancement R&D Dept, WN

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Contents

Introduction to RF/IF Principles

Test of Key Counters

Troubleshooting

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Introduction to RF/IF Principles


1. RX/TX diagrams for the DRFU and DTRU
2. Introduction to functional modules

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RX/TX Diagram for the DRFU


The DRFU involves the RF/IF small-signal part, power amplifier (PA), baseband, and
power supply.
PA-backend

PCB

BB

TX1
TXA

PAA
PA1

Filter

Isolator1

CPRI1
CPRI2

TX2
TXB

PAB
PA2

ANT1

Duplex
filter2

ANT2

Isolator2

BB
IF
Hybrid load
RXA

Hybrid load
LNA1

RX-frontend

LED

Power

Duplex
filter1

RXB

LNA2

Power

RX1 in RX2 in RX1 out RX2 out

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RX/TX
Diagram for
the DTRU

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RF Differences Between the DRFU and the DTRU


1. The DRFU is integrated with the low-noise amplifier (LNA) and duplexer. To
implement the functions of the DRFU, the DTRU must be configured with the
DDPU.
2. The DRFU implements separate and combined functions through relay
switching, whereas the DTRU implements these functions through switches
on the RF coaxial connector.
3. The DRFU can implement combined cabinets through switches, whereas
the DTRU does not implement combined cabinets.

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Introduction to Functional Modules (TX


Units)
The TX units of the DTRU and DRFU have the same functions but different
components.
The following figure shows the TX channel of the small-signal part.
DAC
I&Q

Modulator

Resistance
PAD

DVGA

The baseband adjusts the output level of the modulator by controlling the amplitude of
I&Q signals so that the level remains stable at 4 dBm (GMSK) and -2.5 dBm (8PSK).
Then, the power is amplified through the DVGA, amplifier, and PA. Finally, the power
(40 W/26 W GSM/EDEG) is output through the RF coupler and isolator.

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Introduction to Functional Modules (TX


Units)

Analysis of key counters

EVM
Carrier suppression, I&Q balance, and carrier orthogonality of the I&Q
modulator
Phase noise of the TRX
Non-linear amplitude compression and amplitude-phase conversion
Phase-frequency distortion and amplitude-frequency distortion of the channel

Spectrum mask
Spectrum mask of the baseband I&Q
Local oscillator phase noise and spurious emission of the transmitter
Non-linear spectrum spread of the transmitter, including the non linearity of
the modulator and amplifier, which has an impact within 6 MHz
Low noise of the transmitter, which affects the remote spectrum of the TRX

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Introduction to Functional Modules (Power


Amplification Units)
The PA of the DRFU uses a relay. Thus, it is different from the DTRU.
The PA amplifies the TX signals output from the TX tributary to the required power level
on a two-level basis, outputs them to the duplexer, and then transmits them through the
antenna port.
Two TRXs support separate or combined output of power. When two TRXs work
separately, the combined output is unavailable and the power is directly output through
the relay. In combined output mode, two channels of power are inputted to the 3 dB
electrical bridge through the relay and are synthesized for output. Three channels are
coupled (two channels are forward coupled separately and one channel is forward
coupled after combination). The power output by forward coupling and combined
coupling is sent to the detection unit respectively.

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Introduction to Functional Modules (Power


Amplification Units)

Circuit implementation

Composition of channel A

Composition of channel B

In combined output mode, two channels of power are synthesized for


output through the 3 dB electrical bridge, which is implemented by
controlling the relays of channels A and B. The following figure shows the
composition.

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Introduction to Functional Modules


(Combined Output Unit of the DRFU)
In combined output mode, two channels of power are synthesized for
output through the 3 dB electrical bridge, which is implemented by
controlling the relays of channels A and B. The following figure shows
the composition.

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Introduction to Functional Modules


(Combined Output Unit of the DTRU)

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Introduction to Functional Modules (RX Unit


of the DRFU)
The RX unit consists of two frontend LNAs, two main receivers, and two
diversity receivers (that is, including main and diversity reception of two
TRXs). The RX signals to the DRFU are filtered by the passive receive filter,
are amplified by the LNA, and then enter the switch shunt unit and circuits
at the end of the receiver. The switch shunt unit is used to support
different configurations of the BTS.

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Introduction to Functional Modules (RX


Unit of the DTRU)

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Introduction to Functional Modules (Digital


Bias Circuit)
The current detection circuit samples the static working voltage of the PA. The
A/D converts the collected analog voltage signals into digital signals and
sends them to the controller for processing. After processing, the controller
sends a control signal. Then, the DAC converts the control signal into an
analog voltage signal, controls the grid of the PA, and adjusts the static
working voltage of the PA. The following figure shows the basic composition.

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Test of Key Counters


1.

Test of the power detection table

2.

Test of the RSSI of the RX channel

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Test of the Power Detection Table Equipment


for Making the Power Detection Table

The following figure shows the equipment for making the power detection table of the DRFU. The DTRU
has the similar principles to the DRFU but different equipment for making the power detection table.

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Test of the Power Detection Table Test


Records
Link gain of the smallsignal part

Close to maximum
detection power
Detection circuit error
Attenuation range
Output power of the
reference frequency
and corresponding
detection value
Target detection
values corresponding
to power levels of the
reference frequency
Detection frequency calibration

Gain flatness
Detection frequency calibration
table

Detection flatness

Baseband temperature
PA temperature

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Test of the Power Detection Table


Principles for Making the Power
Detection Table

According to GSM protocols, the transmit power of the BTS is classified into 22 levels and the power difference
between levels is 2 dB. Therefore, a total of 22 target detection values need to be calculated. To improve the efficiency
of making the power detection table, only 10 points are sampled when the power detection table is made. The target
detection values are calculated using the linear interpolation based on the 10 points.
Sample point: [power detected by power
meter, detection value]
Target detection values of 22 levels in
GMSK non-combination mode
Target detection values in GMSK wideband
combination mode
Target detection values in GMSK PBT
combination mode
Target detection values in 8PSK PBT
combination mode
(46.80,2678)

Detection
value

Y2

Formula for calculating a target detection value:

Y1

Y Y1
Y 2 Y1
Y 2 Y1

Y
X X 1 Y 1
X X1 X 2 X1
X 2 X1

(43.2,2559)
Power detected by
power meter

46.2

X1

X2

Reference frequency for making the power detection table: frequency 37 (EGSM900) or frequency 698 (DCS1800)

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Test of the Power Detection Table


Detection Slope
Detection slope: It indicates the change of the detection value with the input power.

Sample
data:
AD8313 detection voltage

Example
(46.80,3269)

Y2
Y1

(43.2,3124)

X1

X2

Power detected by power meter

Formula for calculating the detection


slope:

SLOP

Y 2 Y1
X 2 X1

Range of the detection slope: 20 to 44 mV/dB (EGSM900 and DCS1800)


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Test of the Power Detection Table


Gain Flatness
The detection values are different in the case of different frequencies and the same input power. To save the
table making time and table storage space, the power detection table is made only for the reference
frequency. Therefore, eight segments must be divided to compensate for the detection error of other
frequencies.
Eight calibration frequencies: invalid frequency, 13, 38, 62, 86, 111, 982, and 1007 (EGSM900) or 535,
582, 629, 676, 723, 770, 822, and 868 (DCS1800)
Set the value of the digital control attenuator to 0xfa and the attenuation curve to 0x00, and then test the
output power and corresponding detection values based on eight calibration frequencies. The difference
between the maximum output power and the minimum output power is gain flatness.
Range of the gain flatness: less than 4.8 dB (EGSM900) or 4.5 dB (DCS1800)

Example
Sample points of eight frequencies
Gain flatness = 46.8 - 44.4 = 2.4 dB

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Test of the Power Detection Table


Frequency Calibration Table
Calculation of the frequency calibration table: The detection value of the reference frequency corresponding to the output
power of eight frequencies is calculated on the basis of the linear interpolation in the target detection table of the reference
frequency, and then the detection value of the reference frequency is subtracted from the detection value of the
calibration frequency.
Detection flatness: Maximum frequency calibration table Minimum frequency calibration table. It indicates the
difference between detection values in the case of different frequencies and the same power detected by the power
meter. This is caused by uneven insertion loss of the detection circuit or PA output link.
Range of the detection flatness: less than 50 (EGSM900) or 60 (DCS1800)

Target detection table of the reference frequency

(X1,
Y1)
(X2,
Y2)
As shown in the right figure, the detection
value corresponding to 46.8 dBm is 2678 according
to the linear interpolation in the target detection table of the reference frequency. Therefore,
the detection value of the calibration frequency is 0x87 (2671 - 2678 = -7 = 0x87).

Detection value

Example
Y 2 Y1
X X 1 Y 1
X 2 X1
Y 2678
Y2
(46.2,2658)
Y

Y1

(44.2,2592)

46.8
Sample points of
eight frequencies
X1
X2 X
Power detected by power meter
Frequency calibration table. If the
binary digit is 1, it indicates a positive
Detection flatness. Maximum frequency
calibration table Minimum frequency calibration number. If the binary digit is 0, it
indicate
a negative
number.
HUAWEI
Huawei
Confidential
table,
that is, TECHNOLOGIES
0x12 - 0x87 = 18 CO.,
- (-7) =LTD.
25.

Page 24

Test of the Power Detection Table


Reverse
Table
Making
The DTRU does not provide the reverse table making function.
Table making power: Starting from 48 dBm in descending order, one target detection value is calculated
every 4 dB and a total of 10 values are calculated.
Table making method: When channel A performs table making, the output power of TRX B on the control
module is reversely input to channel A. When channel B performs table making, the output power of TRX
A on the control module is reversely input to channel B.
Test of the standing wave detection function: In the case of the same channel and power, the difference
between the forward and backward detection values should not be greater than 200.
Standing wave detection power
Output power of the reference
frequency and corresponding
detection value
Target detection value

Reverse test after table


making

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Test of the Power Detection Table


Reverse Table Making
Table making power: Starting from 48 dBm in descending order, one target
detection value is calculated every 4 dB and a total of 10 values are calculated.
Method: The detection value corresponding to the table making power of the
reverse table is obtained on the basis of the interpolation in the forward target
detection table, and then a fixed value is subtracted.
M900: 100 (channel A), 60 (channel B)
M1800: 150 (channel A), 5 (channel B)
Purpose: To improve the efficiency of the equipment for making the power
detection table before aging.
Basis: The forward and backward detections share a detector but use different
coupling circuits.

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RSSI Test DRFU Test Record


The RSSI test of the DRFU is different from that of the DTRU. The
RSSI test record of the DRFU is as follows:
Value of the digital
control attenuator
Gain adjustment
of the RX channel

RSSI frequency
calibration table
Test of combined
cabinet ports

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RSSI Test Equipment Test


Procedure of the DRFU
1.

Configure the signal source on the equipment to output -60 dBm single-tone signals to the ANT port of
the module. The central frequency of DCS1800 is 698, and that of EGSM is 37.

2.

Send a command on the equipment to start the RSSI test, and then monitor the size of signals output
from the RX_OUT port through the power meter.

3.

Adjust the digital control attenuators of the main and diversity channels on the equipment in the range
from 0 dB to 2 dB so that the gain of the RX_OUT channel is closest to 24. The allowed range is +/-2.

4.

After the adjustment is complete, set the main and diversity attenuation of the RX channel to the final
value after adjustment, and then perform the RSSI calibration test.

5.

Configure the signal source on the equipment to output -80 dBm single-tone signals to the ANT port of
the module. The signal frequencies are central frequencies of eight subsegments. In theory, the RSSI
value reported by the module is 30 (-80 + 110).

6.

Send a command on the equipment to the baseband to obtain the main and diversity RSSI values of
TRXs A and B, for example, the main RSSI value reported by TRX A is 35.

7.

Subtract the obtained RSSI value (35) from the standard value (30). The difference value (-5) is the
RSSI calibration value. This representation is defined in SCP. The most significant bit (BIT7) of a byte
is a symbol bit. The value 0 indicates a positive number, and the value 1 indicates a negative number.
Therefore, the value -5 is represented by 0x85.

8.

Write eight RSSI values obtained in the preceding test to the equipment and then read them. If the
written data is consistent with the read data, it indicates that the test is successful.
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RSSI Test DTRU Test Record


RX0/RX1/RX2/RX
4 RSSI calibration
table

RSSI test value


when the value of
the digital control
attenuator is set
to 15 dB
RSSI test value
when the value
of the digital
control
attenuator is
set to 0 dB

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RSSI Test Equipment Test


Procedure of the DTRU
1.

Configure the signal source on the equipment to output a single-tone signal.


The signal is sent to the RX0, RX1, RX2, and RX3 ports through the 4-way
power divider. The signal amplitude of the module is -60 dBm. The central
frequency of DCS1800 is 698, and that of EGSM is 37.

2.

Send a command on the equipment to start the RSSI test, and then obtain the RSSI
values of four channels, for example, the RSSI values of four channels are 35, 31, 28, and
27.

3.

In theory, the RSSI value reported by the module is 31 (-60 + 91). The RSSI value can be
calibrated only when the RSSI value reported is in the range of 315.

4.

Calculate the RSSI compensation values of the module, for example, the RSSI calibration
values of four ports are 4, 0, -3, and -4, and then write the data to the flash memory.

5.

After the RSSI calibration is complete, send a RSSI test command on the equipment.

6.

Configure the signal source to output -42 dBm signals, and then read the RSSI value when
the value of the digital control attenuator is set to 15 dB and the RSSI value when the
value of the digital control attenuator is set to 0 dB. If the RSSI value is in the range of 5,
it indicates that the test is successful.

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Troubleshooting
1. The gain of the TX channel is abnormal.
2. The modulation spectrum is abnormal.
3. The handover spectrum is abnormal.
4. The EVM is abnormal.
5. The receive sensitivity is abnormal.
6. The loopback is abnormal.

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The gain of the TX channel is


abnormal.

This problem is a common problem. Before the power detection table of the module is made, the test of the small-signal part
must be performed to check whether the gain of the TX channel is normal.
The following figure shows the test record of the module.

Location method:
The open-loop customized messages involved in the location are as follows:
FPGA writable:
D4-04-00-00-FF-90-00-07-87-00-04-84-C4-00-FF
D4-04-00-01-FF-90-00-07-87-01-04-84-C4-00-FF
Open-loop command:
D4-04-00-00-FF-90-00-0d-87-00-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-22-00-01-03
D4-04-00-01-FF-90-00-0d-87-01-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-44-00-01-03
Forcibly opening the PA:
D4-04-00-00-FF-90-00-0d-87-00-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-32-00-01-81
D4-04-00-01-FF-90-00-0d-87-01-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-50-00-01-81
Curve:
D4-04-00-00-FF-90-00-0d-87-00-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-26-00-01-20
D4-04-00-01-FF-90-00-0d-87-01-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-38-00-01-20
Digital control attenuator:
D4-04-00-00-FF-90-00-0d-87-00-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-41-00-01-fa fa controls the attenuation value of the digital control attenuator.
D4-04-00-01-FF-90-00-0d-87-01-0A-85-C4-00-F0-00-00-55-00-01-fa
Reading the detector:
D4-04-00-00-FF-90-00-0C-87-00-09-16-C4-00-F0-00-00-39-00-02
D4-04-00-01-FF-90-00-0C-87-01-09-16-C4-00-F0-00-00-51-00-02

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The gain of the TX channel is abnormal.


a. Set the module to work in closed-loop mode. Test the output power of the PA port and query the value of the digital control
attenuator. In normal cases, the power tested on the combined port is about 46 dBm and the value of the digital control
attenuator is about FB-F9.
b. Check the soldering of channel components such as double isolator, surface mount isolator, and duplexer. Use the
multimeter to measure the resistance to ground of the double isolator (the resistance is about 25 ohms). Check whether
the isolator, coupler, and output and input ends of the N connector are connected.
c. Perform the open-loop test for the small-signal part and check whether the power of the small-signal part matches that of the
normal module.
d. If the small-signal part is normal, check the voltages and resistances of the amplifier and PA. Perform point tests on the
output power on the amplifier and surface mount isolator using an end up cable to determine which level this problem
occurs on.
e. If the small-signal part is abnormal, check whether the output of the modulator matches that of the normal module.
f. If the output of the modulator is normal, it indicates that the DVGA may be faulty. Check components, measure the voltage
and resistance, and compare them with the normal channel.
g. If the output of the modulator is abnormal, test local oscillator signals and IQ signals. Test the output end of the local
oscillator amplifier using an end up cable. The level is about 0 dBm. The frequency of IQ signals is 67 kHz (GMSK) or 51
kHz (8PSK), and the amplitude is 0.5 V.
h. Check whether IQ signals are normal. The IQ data in channels A and B can be crossed through a specific software version.
Locate the fault based on different results.
Note: When performing point tests on the power using an end up cable, connect the attenuator to protect the instrument. A DCseparating capacitor (with a dedicated isolator) should be connected so that point tests are performed on test points with
DC. If a DC-separating capacitor is unavailable, ensure that there is no DC on test points.

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The modulation spectrum is


abnormal.
Module test record:

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The modulation spectrum is


abnormal.
The modulation spectrum is affected by the following factors:
1) Linearity of the PA
The linearity of the PA is one of the important factors that affect the handover spectrum. When the PA works at P-1 compression
point approximately, the linearity of the PA has a great impact on the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum. If this
problem occurs, you can decrease the power to check the improvement of the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum. If
the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum are improved greatly, it indicates that the linearity of the PA leads to
spectrum deterioration.
2) Spurious emission and phase noise of the local oscillator
The spurious emission of the local oscillator is modulated by the modulator to output signals, which leads to the deterioration
of the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum. During problem location, you can independently test the spurious
emission and phase noise of the local oscillator to check whether the design requirements are met. Alternatively, you can
disconnect the local oscillator and connect the signal source to the frequency synthesizer to check the improvement.
3) Background noise of the modulator
4) Background noise of the instrument
5) Quality of digital IQ signals

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Page 35

The modulation spectrum is


abnormal.

Location method:

a. Tighten the screws on the shield cover and check whether the modulation spectrum and handover
spectrum are improved. If the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum are improved, it
indicates that the poor shielding leads to the deterioration of the modulation spectrum and
handover spectrum.
b. Check whether the output end of the PA closely contacts the PCB. If the output end of the PA does
not closely contact the PCB, the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum may deteriorate.
c. Install the PA near the output end as much as possible to improve the consistency and output
matching. When the power is involved, the output matching of the PA circuit is more sensitive.
d. Test the output power manually. If the power tested is at least 0.5 dB greater than the theoretical
value, check the information about the power detection table, for example, the linearity of the
detection circuit and the line loss of the equipment. In addition, check the detection voltage in the
test data and check whether the slope decreases in the case of high power.
e. If the power is normal, decrease one or two power levels for test. If the modulation spectrum and
handover spectrum are improved significantly (for example, they reaches more than 4 dB to 5 dB),
it indicates that the linearity of the PA is abnormal. (There is no power difference between power
levels 0 and 1 of EDGE signals, and therefore you are advised to decrease two power levels.)
f.

Use the signal source to input signals to the PA and test P-1 of the PA to check the linearity of the PA.

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Page 36

The modulation spectrum is


abnormal.
g. If the power level is decreased and the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum are
not improved significantly, test the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum of the
small-signal part. The power of the small-signal part must reach more than -70 dBc at
400 kHz. The output power on the test port of the small-signal part is small, and
therefore the modulation spectrum beyond 800 kHz cannot serve as a reference.
h. If the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum of the small-signal part exceed the

standard values, test the DVGA and output spectrum of the modulator and check
whether the spectrum matches that of normal signals.
i.

Check whether local oscillator signals are normal. Disconnect the local oscillator and
input local oscillator signals to the modulator using the signal source to check whether
the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum are improved.

J. Use the oscilloscope to check whether the IQ signals output by the DAC match the
normal signals. Alternatively, use a jumper to input the IQ signals of the normal channel
to the channel and check whether the modulation spectrum and handover spectrum are
improved.

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Page 37

The handover spectrum is


Location method:
abnormal.

You can locate this problem by referring to the location method of the modulation spectrum.
Note that the modulation spectrum is for the spectrum range where the frequencies from
the central frequency is greater than 400 kHz.
Therefore, to accurately obtain the quality of the small-signal part on the test port, you can
disconnect the TX channel and use an external end up cable for test. In this case, the
signal level exceeds 10 dBm.
The possible causes for the handover spectrum problem are as follows:
a.

The linearity of the PA may cause this problem. In addition, use the oscilloscope to check
whether the gate voltage waveform is normal. If the gate voltage waveform is abnormal,
check the gate voltage line.

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Page 38

b.

The handover spectrum is


abnormal.

The small-signal part may cause this problem. Test local oscillator signals to check whether the
spurious emission of the phase-locked source affects the modulation spectrum.
Ref

-20

dBm

Att

dB

* RBW

* VBW

500

SWT

kHz

1.15

Delta

[T1

-75.35

328.525641025
Marker

-20

1
-30
1 AP
CLRWR

Hz

[T1

-28.09

dBm
MHz

[T1

198.717948718
Delta

[T1

-53.80

dB
kHz

-67.86
-50

kHz

942.400641026
Delta

-40

dB

256.410256410

dB
kHz

-60

-70

-80

-90

3
-100

-110

-120

Center

942.400641

Date: 21.JUL.2008

c.

MHz

100

kHz/

Span

MHz

10:44:54

The handover spectrum of the DTRU or DRFU is tested in FH mode. If the test result on the equipment
is abnormal but the manual test result is normal, test the handover spectrum in FH mode.

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Page 39

The EVM is abnormal.

Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) defines the error between the signal vector in a real
transmission environment and that in an ideal transmission environment.

EVM and frequency-phase error represent the modulation accuracy in a different


modulation scheme.

The modulation scheme of EDGE signals is 8PSK, and the power of TX signals
changes in a timeslot. That is, there are both the vector error and the magnitude
error between the actual signal vector and the ideal signal vector. In addition, these
factors cause the origin drift on the constellation diagram. Therefore, EVM and OOS
are used to represent the modulation accuracy of EDGE signals.

The modulation scheme of GMSK signals is a special frequency-shift keying (FSK)


modulation scheme. The signals are modulated on the frequency of the TRX, and the
power of TX signals remains unchanged in a timeslot. Therefore, there are only the
phase error and phase change error (frequency error) between the actual signal
vector and the ideal signal vector. In this case, the frequency error and phase error
are used to represent the modulation accuracy of GMSK signals.

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The EVM is abnormal.

a.

b.

c.

d.
e.

The EVM problem is generally caused by the PA.


Location method:
The most common EVM problem is that the OOS test value is less than 35, which is caused by the
poor shielding of the shield cover. You can solve this problem by reinstalling the shield cover,
tightening the screws at key locations (for example, screws near the PA), or replacing the shield cover.
Test high, middle, and low frequencies manually, especially the working frequencies of the DRFU
tested by the equipment. The imbalance between high and low frequencies often occurs on the PA. In
addition, check the power size.
Test the power. If the power is at least 0.5 dB greater than the theoretical value, check the information
about the power detection table, for example, the linearity of the detection circuit and the line loss of
the equipment.
If the power is normal, decrease the power level. If the EVM is improved significantly, it indicates that
this problem is caused by the linearity of the PA.
The signals after spatial coupling are amplified by the PA, and the EVM of the small-signal part is
affected. Therefore, when testing the EVM of the small-signal part, you are advised to disconnect both
the DC-separating capacitor on the TX channel and the power supply of the PA. Generally, the EVM of
the small-signal part is less than 2% or it can reach 3.5% in the case of interference. In this case, the
location of the test cable relative to the PA must be considered.

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Page 41

The receive sensitivity is


abnormal.
The sensitivity is determined by the gain of the RX channel, noise coefficient, and demodulation
ratio. The sensitivity of the RF channel is determined by the gain and noise coefficient. It is
difficult to observe the noise coefficient.
Location method: Observe the signal levels of the input and output ends of each key component
on the channel. The equipment is tested in FH mode, and therefore you must perform the
test in FH mode when locating the problem.
a.

Check whether an RF phase-locked loop alarm is generated. When the locking time of the
RF phase-locked loop is abnormal, the sensitivity may become poor. In this case, the main
and diversity sensitivities on channel A or B become poor.

b.

Use the signal source to input signals of a certain level (for example, -15 dBm) to the RX
channel, and then check whether the input and output signal levels of the lower-level key
components are abnormal. Check the RF input port of the mixer, IF differential output port,
and input and output ports of the SAW filter. In addition, you need to check local oscillator
signals when checking the mixer.

c.

If a channel has the poor main or diversity sensitivity, cross the IF differential signals in the
channel using a cable with the appropriate length. The main and diversity should not be
crossed simultaneously; otherwise, the interference occurs.

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The loopback is
abnormal.
Key path of the loopback: mixer inside the DVGA -> input end of the RX channel -> The level
of loopback signals is low, and therefore the attenuation value inside the instrument
should not be set to a too large value. You are advised to set the attenuation value to 0 dB.

Location method:

a. Send a loopback test command on the BTSM. Connect a cable from the output port of the
RX channel to the spectrum analyzer and then observe the signal quality. The normal
signal level is about -75 dBm. Check whether the signal amplitude is normal.
b. If the loopback signals are normal, locate the problem with the RX channel by referring to
the method for locating the sensitivity problem.
c. If the loopback signals are abnormal, check the modulator and DVGA. If the TX counters of
the module are normal, it indicates that the mixer in the DVGA, switch, or local oscillator
signals may be abnormal.

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Huawei Confidential

Page 43

Thank you
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