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THE OZONE LAYER

DEPLETION

Submitted by :
Amit Kumar Sinha
Maneesh David Singh
Prem Kumar
Gaurav Singh 1
Tarun Jain

ATMOSPHERE

The atmosphere is divided into five layers.

Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere
Exosphere

What Is Ozone
Ozone is a colorless gas, of 3 oxygen molecules,
found in the upper atmosphere of the Earth and
formed by the action of ultraviolet radiation on
oxygen. Ozone forms a layer in the stratosphere,
which protects life on Earth from the harmful
effects of ultraviolet radiation.
The ozone layer is a region in the stratosphere,
between 17 and 25 km above the earths
surface.
This layer absorbs about 97-99% of the harmful
UV rays.

Ozone Absorption
UV radiation includes wavelengths from 200 to 400
nm
UV-A 320-400 nm
UV-B 200-320 nm
UV-C 200-290 nm
UV-C
Nearly all UV-C is absorbed in the upper
atmosphere
UV-B
90% of UV-B is absorbed by the atmosphere,
mostly by O3

Causes of Ozone depletion


Presence of chloroflurocarbones(CFCs)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs): They are much
less harmful to stratospheric ozone than
CFCs,But HCFCs they still cause some ozone
destruction and are potent greenhouse
gases
methyl chloroform (used in industry for
vapour degreasing, some aerosols, cold
cleaning, adhesives and chemical
processing)
7

Causes of Ozone depletion


Presence of bromide such as methyl bromine
(used as a pesticide).
Hydrogen chloride
Carbon tetrachloride(industrial solvent)
Hyrdobromofluorocarbon(HBFCs)
Bromochloromethane(BCM)

THE SUNS ULTRAVIOLET


RAYS
One chlorine molecule can break apart 100,000 ozone
molecules.
Each CFC molecule lasts in stratosphere for 65-385
years
methyl bromine are broken apart, they release
bromine atoms, which are 40 more times destructive
to ozone molecules that chlorine atoms.

Effects of Ozone Depletion


It affects human health both positively and negatively.
Short exposure to UVB radiation generates vitamin D, but
can also lead to sunburn depending on an individuals skin
type.
Fortunately for life on Earth, our atmospheres
stratospheric ozone layer shields us from most UV
radiation.
Australia has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the
world.
About 1200 people die each year in Australia as a result of
skin cancer.

Effects of Ozone Depletion


Damage to the ozone layer can cause the
following:
Skin cancer
Cataracts
Suppression of the immune system
Premature aging of the skin
Since the benefits of sunlight cannot be
separated from its damaging effects, it is
important to understand the risks of
overexposure, and take simple precautions to
protect yourself.

Effects of Ozone Depletion


Damage to plant cell DNA molecules - makes
plants more susceptible to pathogens and
pests

Reductions in photosynthetic capacity in the


plant - results in slower growth and smaller
leaves

Crop damaging(reduce the yields of crops).


Decreasing the abundance of phytoplankton.

The Antarctic ozone hole was discovered in 1985 by


British scientists Joesph Farman, Brian Gardiner, and
Jonathan Shanklin of the British Antarctic Survey.

Actions against OZONE Layer


Depletion

194 nations, including Canada, have signed an


international agreement to end the production
ofchlorofluorocarbons(CFCs),halonsand other
ozone-depleting substances(ODS). The
agreement is called the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete th
e Ozone Layer
(1987). The protocol has been amended several
times, to speed up ODS phaseout dates and to
include more types of ODS.

Suggestions for Individuals

You can make a difference by these actions: Unplug Electronics from the wall when not in use.
Switch to compact fluorescent light bulbs.
Follow 3R rule Recycle, Reduce and Reuse.
Plant a Tree.
Use Energy efficient appliances.
Avoid using Pesticides.
Use Eco-friendly products

THANK YOU