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OPERANT

CONDITIONING
Cailing-Reyes-Palma-Bautista A -Meneses-Esguerra-Sison

OPERANT CONDITIONING

Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or


weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable
consequences.

Operant conditioning applies to voluntary responses,


which an organism performs deliberately to produce a
desirable outcome.

The term operant emphasizes this point: The organism


operates on its environment to produce a desirable result.

THORNDIKES LAW OF EFFECT

Edward L. Thorndike(1932)

THE LAW OF EFFECT : Responses that lead to satisfying


consequences are more likely to be repeated.

Thorndike believed, over time and through experience the


organism would make a direct connection between the
stimulus and the response without any awareness that the
connection existed.

According to Edward
L. Thorndike, the cat
would have learned
that pressing the
paddle was associated
with the desirable
consequence of
getting
food.

The Basics of Operant Conditioning

B. F. Skinner (19041990).

Reinforcement is the process by which a stimulus increases the


probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated.

Reinforcer is any stimulus that increases the probability that a


preceding behavior will occur again.

The only way we can know if a stimulus is a reinforcer for a particular


organism is to observe whether the frequency of a previously
occurring behavior increases after the presentation of the stimulus.

A primary reinforcer

satisfies some biological need and works naturally, regardless


of a persons previous experience.
Example: Food for a hungry person

A secondary reinforcer

A stimulus that becomes reinforcing because of its association


with a primary reinforcer.
Example: Money

POSITIVE REINFORCERS, NEGATIVE REINFORCERS,


AND PUNISHMENT

A Positive Reinforcer is a stimulus added to the environment


that brings about an increase in a preceding response.

Example: food, water, money, or praise

A Negative Reinforcer refers to an unpleasant stimulus whose


removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding
response will be repeated in the future.

Example: Ointment for itchy rash

Punishment A stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous


behavior will occur again.
2 TYPES OF PUNISHMENT

POSITIVE PUNISHMENT

Positive punishment weakens a response through the application of an


unpleasant stimulus

Example: spanking a child

NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT

Negative punishment consists of the removal of something pleasant.

Example: child is grounded


Both positive and negative punishment result in a decrease in the likelihood
that a prior behavior will be repeated.

Stimulus control training The process by which people learn to


discriminate stimuli

Example : friendliness or romantic interest.

A discriminative stimulus signals the likelihood that reinforcement


will follow a response.

Example: mood of parents

Shaping The process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding


closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.