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Defining the

Activities

Outline of this Lecture

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Common Terms
Work Breakdown Structure

1.
2.

1.
2.
3.

Definition and Uses


Examples
Rules for Creating WBSs

IEEE 1074

3.

Standard Processes for Life Cycles

good checklist of common activities

Jargon Alert!

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Work Breakdown Structure

Simply stated, a WBS is a


hierarchical list of the work
activities to complete a project.
course textbook

--

Jargon Alert!

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Activity A major unit of work to be


completed in achieving the objectives of a
software project. An activity has precise
starting and ending dates, incorporates a
set of tasks to be completed, consumes
resources and results in work products. An
activity may include other activities in a
hierarchical manner.
IEEE Std 1058 Standard for Software Project Management Plans

Jargon Alert!

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Task The smallest unit of work subject to


management accountability. A task is a
well defined work assignment for one or
more project members. The specification of
work to be accomplished in completing a
task is documented in a work package.
Related tasks are usually grouped to
form activities.
IEEE Std 1058 Standard for Software Project Management Plans

Jargon Alert!

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Work Package A specification for the


work to be accomplished in completing an
activity or task. A work package defines
the work product(s), the staffing
requirements, the expected duration, the
resources to be used, the acceptance
criteria for the work products, the name of
the responsible individual, and any special
considerations for the work.
IEEE Std 1058 Standard for Software Project Management Plans

Jargon Alert!

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Project Function An activity that spans


the entire duration of a software project.
Examples of project functions include
project management, configuration
management, quality assurance, and
verification and validation.

IEEE Std 1058 Standard for Software Project Management Plans

Jargon Summary

A SPMP contains the WBS.

The WBS is made up of a list of


Activities.

Activities are made up of Tasks.

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

WBS Definition - MIL-HDBK-8811998


A product-oriented family tree composed of hardware,
software, services, data, and facilities. The family tree results
from systems engineering efforts during the acquisition of a
defense materiel item.

A WBS displays and defines the product, or products, to be


developed and/or produced. It relates the elements of work to
be accomplished to each other and to the end product.
A WBS can be expressed down to any level of interest. However
the top three levels are as far as any program or contract need
go unless the items identified are high cost or high risk. Then,
and only then, is it important to take the work breakdown
structure to a lower level of definition.

Primary use of WBS

Determining Budget

Creating a Schedule

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

What else is a WBS used


for

Insuring that we didnt forget anything

Matching staff skills to tasks

Assignment of responsibilities

Tracking progress via milestones

We cannot know that coding is 90% complete


until coding is finished

Communicating the big picture

WBS Contents

Product-Oriented WBS

lots of nouns

Task-Oriented WBS

lots of verbs

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

WBS Formats

Tree

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Useful at early stages for big picture

Indented List

Most popular format


Easy to create and edit (eg Excel)

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Example WBS
#

Task Description

Who

Resources

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Get to Work
Eat Breakfast
Shower
Get Dressed
Goto Office

SD, WD
SD
SD
SD, BD

bread, coffee $1
soap
$.10
existing clothes
vehicle

2
Daily Communication
2.1 Check Email

M&S

Start

$.75

Stop

Example WBS

http://www.hyperthot.com/pm_wbs.htm

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Example WBS

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

WBS Rules

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Avoid too much detail

break down until a group can do the activity in a


week or month - a work package

Only specify what you can manage

Limit depth of indention to manageable


level

Use regular milestones

Helps measure progress

WBS Rules

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

Break it down one level at a time

Clearly describe each detailed level

Make it a team effort

Leverage past projects


From http://www.chips.navy.mil/archives/03_spring/webpages/project1.htm

WBS Rules

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

a. Show all software project work at a level that can be used for
software project tracking and reporting. The WBS must provide the
information that allows the project manager to extract progress
measurement (technical, cost, and schedule) for the project's
required status reporting.
b. Include products, events (e.g., reviews and audits), and processes
(e.g., software qualification) that will show visibility into software
development, testing, deployment, training, and life cycle support
(as required).
c. Assign WBS elements so that they can support risk assessment,
engineering change proposal evaluation, contract change
evaluation, interface management, data management, and
configuration control.
d. Provide the ability to extract costs for separate types of software
work effort (e.g., prototype, full scale development, maintenance).
e. Ensure that the WBS is compatible with the available project
resources (e.g., staff) and organization (e.g., independent
qualification testing).
http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/resources/tech_docs/process_plan/prplp104.html

Identifying Work
Components

SOW
Experience / Other WBSs
Standards Documents

such as IEEE 1074

IEEE 1074
"IEEE Standard for Developing
Software Process Life Cycles"

contains a good checklist of activities

Terms
WBS Definition
WBS Examples
WBS Creation
IEEE 1074

IEEE 1074 Activity


Groups

Software Life Cycle Model Planning

Project Management

Predevelopment

Development

Post-Development

Integral

IEEE 1074

Software Life Cycle Model Planning


Project Management
Predevelopment
Development
Post-Development
Integral

Software Life Cycle Model Planning


1. Map the SLCM to project needs
Project Management
2. Project Initialization
3. Project Monitoring and control
4. Software Quality Management

IEEE 1074

Software Life Cycle Model Planning


Project Management
Predevelopment
Development
Post-Development
Integral

Predevelopment
5. Concept Exploration
6. System Allocation
Development
7. Requirements detailed later
8. Design
9. Implementation detailed later

IEEE 1074

Software Life Cycle Model Planning


Project Management
Predevelopment
Development
Post-Development
Integral

Post-Development
10. Installation
11. Operation and Support
12. Maintenance
13. Retirement

IEEE 1074

Software Life Cycle Model Planning


Project Management
Predevelopment
Development
Post-Development
Integral

Integral
14. Verification and Validation
15. Software Configuration
Management
16. Documentation Development
17. Training

IEEE 1074 Activities


Development
7. Requirements
24. Define and Development Software Requirements
25. Define Interface Requirements
26. Prioritize and Integrate Software Requirements

9. Implementation
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

Create Test Data


Create Source Code
Generate Object Code
Create Operating Documentation
Plan Integration
Perform Integration

Next Time

Before we can build a work plan,


we need to know how much time
everything will take, how many
people we need, how much
money

In other words, estimating