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TUTORIAL WEEK 3

CHAPTER 8CURRICULUM
IMPLEMENTATION
PISMP 8.10-MYRA

NATURE OF
IMPLEMENTATION

Implementation
requires
restructuring
replacement.
Adjustment are made based on:
Personal habits
Ways of behaving
Programs
Learning spaces
Existing curricula
Schedules

and

NATURE OF
IMPLEMENTATION

2
basic
understandings
implementation:

Organizational change and how information and


ideas fit into a real-world context
Relationship between curricula and the social
institutional contexts

essential

to

Successful implementers of curriculum realize that


implementation must be appealing to participants.

NATURE OF
IMPLEMENTATION

Incrementalism (A policy of making changes)


Introducing a new curriculum/new textbooks
Value of change for teachers and students are significant.
Latest programs or textbook do not necessarily signal

improvements.
Influenced politically..socially..economically

Communication
Communication channels (Vertical/Horizontal)
Administrators, teachers and students will work together.
The use of technology

Support
Knowledge, skills and resources
In-service training/financial/discussions

IMPLEMENTATION AS A CHANGE
PROCESS

People needs to understand the need for changes.


Slow changes- Schedules, books, lesson plans
Rapid changes- New knowledge or social trends / ICT

5 guidelines of the implementation of curriculum


change:

Innovations must be technically sound.


Successful innovation requires change in the structure of a
traditional school.
Manageable and feasible for average teachers.
Be organic (flexible and adaptive) rather than
bureaucratic(rigid).
Avoid the do something, anything syndrome

IMPLEMENTATION AS A CHANGE
PROCESS

Types of change (Warren Bennis):


Planned: Equal power, Identify and follow
precise procedures (Ideal)
Coercion: Only one group determines the goal
and take control.
Interaction change: Equal distribution of
power,
Few
procedures
are
carefully
developed/ People involved may be uncertain
Random: No goal setting (the most common in
school) New legislation or pressure from
special-interest groups.

IMPLEMENTATION AS A CHANGE
PROCESS

Complex change (John McNeil):


Substitution: Textbook
Alteration: Materials, content (adopted)
Perturbations: Class schedules
Restructuring: New concepts of teaching roles
Value-orientation
changes:
Curriculum
orientations

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Educators
Administrators
Parents
Students
Schools

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

Lack of ownership
Lack of benefits
Increased burdens
Lack of administrative support
Loneliness(Collaborative action is necessary)
Insecurity(Threat to job/reputation)
Norm Incongruence (Different philosophical
orientation in education)
Boredom (Innovations must be interesting)
Chaos (Change must be manageable)
Differential Knowledge (Excessive power for
advocators)
Sudden wholesale change (major changes)
Unique points of resistance(unexpected

Curriculum Implementation
Models
Overcoming-Resistance-to-Change
Organizational
Educational
Change
Development
Parts,
Model
Units, and Loops
Model

Overcoming-Resistance-to-Change Model

Leaders ability to overcome staff resistance


Power Equalization-administrators and teachers
Ownership and Commitment

Types of concerns:
Unrelated-Teachers do not feel professionally
affected
Personal-Effects of new program to ones teaching
Task-related-Actual use of innovation in the
classroom
Impact-related-Effects on students,colleagues and
community

Organizational Development

Improve the organizations problem solving and


renewal process

Emphasis on teamwork and organizational culture


(Collaborative diagnosis and management)

Use of action research

Curriculum implementation is ongoing and


interactive
New ideas/programs/materials/methods and
students to excite

Concern-Based Adoption
Model

Focus on the implementation only


Change is personal
Analyze needs of the school/students and
addresses teachers concern.

Stress on school culture- Preservice to


Experienced teachers
Stages of concerns:
Awareness>Interests in learning about the
innovation> Skills and knowledge> Time and
resource management> Influences on the
students learning

Systems Model
Organizations composed of parts, units
and departments.
Collaborative acts

Implementation will never be finalized as


it is always changing for different
students, different times and different
demands.

Educational Change

Involves:
Needs
Clarity
Complexity and quality program.

Key Players
Students-Agents of change with their own perspectives
Teachers- Significant to program creation and
implementation
Brings own knowledge and experiences to the curriculum
and modify to fit.
Supervisors- Directions and guidance/ In-service training
Principals- Foster enthusiasm/ give supports
Curriculum Directors-Help teachers and principals to
gain pedagogic and curricular knowledge
Curriculum Consultants- Provide facilitator/analyze
programs/ obtain funding
Parents and Community- Partnership and trust