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Direct Gas Fired Oven

This type of Oven is ideal for Crackers (cream & soda).
Snacks / fermented products which requires short baking time and
high heat input especially at the beginning of the baking cycle.
The oven can be fitted with a turbulence system, which can
enhance uniform baking conditions. It is a high efficiency oven in
terms of heat transfer. The humid environment in the baking
chamber is comparatively higher than that of other types of
This humid environment prevents a skin from forming on the
surface of the dough, and hence the baked product can fully
expand in height, while also ensuring more efficient extraction of
further humidity from the centre of the dough piece.
The number and type of burners required for type of recipe

Cyclothermic Oven
It is Know as Indirect Radiating
This is ideal where the method of heat transfer is when
gentle baking is required. Preferred for the production of hard
sweet, rotary moulded, wirecut or deposited biscuits.
With a slat type of conveyor, it can also be utilized for baking
products in metal trays such as cakes, muffins or bread.
Heat transfers in this type of oven is mainly by radiation. The
baking chamber comprises of a set of tubes set above and
below the conveyor, which transfers the heat to the dough
pieces. A burner heats the hot air which is forced the tubes
with the aid of a fan blower. One of the main feature, the fuel
combustion products never comes in contact with the dough

Convection Oven
Direct Convection
This type of Oven, is preferred when the dough requires heat by means of hot air. Air is heated
upto 220 250 C and conveyed to the baking chamber and blown to the top and the bottom of
the product being baked. This is uniformly distributed throughout the baking chamber. This type
of baking is typically used in the last sections of a Hybrid Oven after the previous Direct Gas Fired
Provides better and more precise control of the final moisture
Final colour of the products can be easily fine tuned

Indirect Convection
This type of heating is utilized in the Hybrid type after the Indirect radiating heated section of the
oven. Even in this type of Oven, the heat is transferred to the dough by means of hot air. A heat
exchanger facilitates this transfer in order to avoid any contamination of the air that comes into
contact with the product being baked. This is then conveyed to the baking chamber which is at a
temperature of around 200 C and then blown to the top and the bottom of the product.
Since the transfer of heat is through exchangers, hot air which comes in contact with the dough
does not contain any combustible product.
Better Operator Controls in each zone / baking chamber temperature / top and bottom heat ratio
Better extraction of moisture from the chamber.

Hybrid Oven
The amount of heat required by a dough piece varies throughout the baking
process. High amount of heat is required at the beginning and once the structure is
established the amount of heat required is more and needs to be gentle. For such
type of baking process, we generally recommend a Hybrid type of Oven which
consists of a radiating heat in the beginning followed by convection heating
towards the end of baking process. Different types of heat can have different
effects on the final product. Hence it is ideal for recipes that require mixed-heat
This can be a combination of the following with or without Turbulence:

Direct Gas Fired

Indirect Gas fired Cyclotherm
Direct or Indirect Convection


Flexibility of Baking process with different products in the same oven

Fine texture and Crispy end products
Uniformity in Colour across the width
Moisture Uniformity in each piece
Greater Control over the final moisture content of the products