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FUNDAMENTAL OF

NETWORKING
TOPIC 2
Networking Fundamentals

Computer Network

A computer network is a data communication


system which interconnects computer system at
various locations.
Common computer networks are Local Area
Network (LAN), Wide Are Network (WAN),
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), Virtual
Private Network (VPN) and Intranet and Internet.

Computer networking is done to facilitate data flow,


implement security, share applications, resources
and hardware.

Network Topology

Network topology describes the method


used to do the physical configuration of
cables, computer and network devices.
Physical topology should not be confused
with logical topology.
The choice of topology is dependent upon
Type and number of equipment being used
Planned applications and rate of data transfers
Required response times
cost

Figure 2.1 Categories of topology

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Figure 2.2 A fully connected mesh topology (five devices)

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Figure 2.3 A star topology connecting four stations

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Figure 2.4 A bus topology connecting three stations

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Figure 2.5 A ring topology connecting six stations

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Figure 2.6 A hybrid topology: a star backbone with three bus networks

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Network Devices

Network topology describes the method


used to do the physical configuration of
cables, computer and network devices.
Physical topology should not be confused
with logical topology.
The choice of topology is dependent upon
Type and number of equipment being used
Planned applications and rate of data
transfers
Required response times
cost

Network Devices

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Network Devices
Network Interface
Card

Hub

Used for connecting


computers on a LAN
To forward the data it
receives to all its
ports
Called as
concentrators

A computer circuit
board
For connecting to the
network
Can be internal or
external

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Network Devices

Switch

Repeater

A smarter device than a


hub
Similar functions as a hub
(faster)
It filters and forwards data
between LAN segments

Allow the signal to


travel farther
Prevent attenuation
(signal degradation)

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Network Devices
Bridge

Functions as the same


way as repeater
Could also divide a
network to reduce
traffic problems

Router
Used in a complex
networks
Determine the most
efficient path for the
data movement in the
network

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Network Devices
Brouter

Has the best


features of both
router and bridge
Cable

To connect computers
and other network
devices together for
sending and receiving
data
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Network Devices

Gateway
Used as a connection to the mainframe or
the internet
Enable communications between different
protocols, data types and environments.
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Types of Network

Depending on the size and coverage


area of the network, it can be
classified into following group:

LAN
A network that connects a group of
computers in a small geographical
area such as in a building or office.
LANs are typically
high speed networks

Figure 2.7 An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet

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MAN
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a
backbone network that connects
Local Area Network (LANs) in a
metropolitan area such as city or
town.

WAN
Wide Area Network is a computer
network covering broad geographical
areas such as state or country.
In WAN, the data and information
delivery is made via telephone
lines, microwave or satellites.

Figure 2.8 WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN

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Figure 2.9 A heterogeneous network made of four WANs and two LANs

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Line Configuration

Links - is the communication channel that


connects adjacent computers along the
communication path.
It consists of a series of communication links,
starting at the transmitter to the receiver
Type of Connection
Point to Point - single transmitter and receiver
Multipoint - multiple recipients of single
transmission

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Figure 2.10 WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN

Links

Point-to-Point Link
Involves only one transmitter and one receiver
Sender only transmits data that is intended to be used
by a specific receiver
E.g.: WAN connection
between JB and KL branch

Links

Broadcast Link
Involves a single transmitter with multiple receivers, or
multiple transmitter with multiple receivers
It send signals to all directions, all receivers,
simple and fast to implement
E.g.: TV station transmitting
a signal from its tower to
thousand of homes with
TV antennas

Figure 2.11 Types of connections: point-to-point and multipoint

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Figure 2.12 Types of Data Transmission

Data
Transmission???
What is

Serial Transmission
Transmission of bits one after another over
single wire
It has an error checking feature
It can be used over longer distances
Example: connection between a computerSlide
and
a
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modem

Figure 2.13 Types of Data Transmission


Example of Serial Transmission

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Types of Data Transmission


Parallel Transmission

Multiple wires are used for transmitting bits simultaneously


It is faster than serial transmission
1 byte is sent rather than 1 bit at a time
It is used for communication between devices
(short distances)
Example:
Internal devices
Hard disk and motherboard
Printers and other peripherals

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Types of Data Transmission


Comparison between Serial and Parallel Transmission
Serial Transmission

Parallel Transmission

In a single wire

Simultaneously over
multiple wires

Slower than parallel

Faster than serial

Longer distance

Short distance

Connection between
computer and modem

Connection between
motherboard and hard disk

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