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Teach a Book: Classroom Management

for
Middle and High School Teachers
Edmund T. Emmer
Carolyn M. Evertson

Chapter 1:
Organizing Your Classroom and
Materials
Room arrangement:

Consistent with instructional goals and activities


-

Teacher-led vs small groups

Mix of both?

High-traffic areas free of congestion

Students easily seen by teacher

Frequently used materials/supplies easily


accessible

Students easily see board

Chapter 1:
Organizing Your Classroom and
Materials
Suggestions for arranging your
classroom:

Bulletin boards/walls
-

Daily assignments on decorative display (colored paper or borders)

9th grade and below post rules of classroom

Reward class of the month

Floor space - starting point: where is whole-class


instruction?

Student desks - avoid students w/backs to instructional area

Teachers desk and other equipment

Storage space and supplies

Chapter 1:
Organizing Your Classroom and
Materials
If you have to float:

Familiarize yourself with the room

Try to arrange a projector for daily use


-

Prepare transparencies for lessons/hw assignments, and notices

A regular space on the board for assignments

Storage space for materials that cannot be carried with you


everyday

Try to get a cart

Assign early arriving students the task of preparing the


room
-

Erase boards, set up projector, arrange chairs

Chapter 2:
Choosing Rules and Procedures
Why rules and procedures are needed

Rules identify general expectations or standards - best when


positively stated (You may talk when given permission)

Procedures communicate expectations for behavior - apply to a


specific activity

Planning classroom rules and procedures


(consequences?)

Identify school rules and procedures

Around 5 sufficient to cover most behavior (student participation?)


-

Bring all needed materials to class

Be in your seat and ready to work when the bell rings

Respect and be polite to all people

Respect other peoples property

Obey all school rules

Chapter 2:
Choosing Rules and Procedures

General Procedures

Beginning of period
-

Attendance: use seating chart, keep track of missing work

Absences: write name and date on handouts and keep in absentee


folder; daily assignments on calendar; student volunteers to assist
returning students

Tardy students: be consistent; sign in sheet

Expected behavior: Warm up questions at beginning of period, copy


outline of class activities

Leaving the room: emergencies only; keeping a record; reduced


credit for work not brought to class

Use of materials and equipment: teachers and student


materials

End of period: clean up of materials and reminders of


upcoming work

Chapter 2:
Choosing Rules and Procedures
Procedures during seatwork and
instruction

Student attention during presentations: respect and notetaking

Participation: raise hands, student call?

Seatwork
-

Talk among students (no student talk vs quiet talk)

Raised hands for help

Out-of-seat procedures: sharpen pencil, get paper; one-at-a-time

When work is completed (enrichment activities folder, work on hw)

Chapter 2:
Choosing Rules and Procedures
Procedures for group work

Distribution of material stations/helpers

Assigning students to groups: well-balanced, separate clashing


personalities, save time, efficient

Outline goals and participation roles (recorder, reader, etc.)

Cooperative learning

Miscellaneous

Signals: obtain student attention, transitions (turn off lights, bell)

Announcements, special equipment, fire drills, and split lunch


periods (what to do with work and personal belongings)

Chapter 3:
Managing Student Work
Your grading system and record keeping

Achievement, effort, hw, improvement, participation, and


percentages

Accurate assessment: frequent evaluation

Record all student info in grade book rather than separate lists

Feedback and monitoring procedures

Students check own work (different ink and model how to check)

Students keep own record of grades

Long-term/group projects: divide into smaller goals and deadlines

Peer review (must teach)

Guided beginning for group seatwork then work the room

Long-range monitoring - keep track of missing assignments

Chapter 3:
Managing Student Work
Communicating assignments and work
requirements

Instructions for assignments


-

Oral explanation of requirements/rubric as well as visual aid on board

Routine of copying down assignment

Standards for form, neatness, and due dates

Procedures for absent students


-

Post weekly assignments or keep absentee folder

Length for make-up

Place for late work turn in and graded pick up

Missed group work - assist groups in inclusion of absent members

Chapter 4:
Getting Off to a Good Start
Perspectives on the beginning of the year

Resolve student uncertainties: expectations, procedures, and rules opportunity for students to learn appropriate behavior

Plan uncomplicated lessons to ensure student success

Keep whole-class focus (group work should maintain this); prepare extra
credit or enrichment assignments; later introduce complex activities

Be available, visible, and in charge: work the room; praise, prompt,


leave

Teacher authority: rights to set standards for behavior and performance


-

Traditional, bureaucratic, expert/professional, charismatic

Most teachers derive authority from several sources

Authoritarian (control through threats and punishment) vs authoritative (provide


basis for actions/discipline, give students independence for maturity, and
administer consequences fairly and proportionately)

Chapter 4:
Getting Off to a Good Start
Planning for a good beginning

Checking books out to students (wait until lockers have been


assigned): record book numbers, name stamp, cover

Paperwork (hall pass, emergency forms, etc): all forms on hand and
separated in folders

Rosters organized by period, noting accommodations for


seating/medication, 3x5: name, book #, attendance, grades until
class stabilized - useful for calling on students

Seating assignments: learn names/attendance faster, class


management

First-week bell schedule, tardiness leniency for first few days,


administrative tasks, rules

Course requirements: tests, quizzes, hw contributions - parents sign?

Beginning routine and alternative activities (wkst, puzzles, logic


problems)

Chapter 4:
Getting Off to a Good Start
The first day of class

Stand near door (sign w/name outside), make eye contact and
smile, correct any students that enter with unacceptable behavior,
and make sure students are in the correct room

Administrative tasks (forms on hand), check attendance by raised


hands (not call-outs), teacher/student/course introductions

Discussion of class rules and rationale/penalties, emphasizing


benefits to all, and presentation of course requirements

Interesting initial content activity: should require little or no


assistance, which allows time for teaching procedures
-

Explain what students are expected to do, list steps on board if complex,
demonstrate when possible, give corrective feedback

Avoid pre-tests, small groups, projects, and individualized


instruction

Establish end-of-period routine

Chapter 4:
Getting Off to a Good Start
The second day of classes

If 1st day was short, review class procedures and follow 1 st day
plan

Identify new students and get them seated, re-state


beginning-of-class routine, review major rules and procedures

Present content activity

Close period with procedure introduced on day 1

After the second day

Continue using procedures, adding new ones as needed

Monitor student behavior and give students feedback when their


behavior does not meet expectations

Should start giving regular assignments for in-class and at home


and check work promptly using grading procedures

Chapter 5:
Planning and Conducting
Instruction
Planning classroom activities: types

Openers to transition into the classroom (Do Nows) and Closers

Checking work: must teach appropriate procedures (different ink color)

Recitation: oral check of student understanding, distribute questions to all


members of class, watch for too slow or too rapid pacing

Content development: intro/extension of material, concepts, or skills; teacher


questions/collect work for understanding

Discussion: encourage evaluation, awareness of other points of view, sharing of


opinions; requires planning prompting questions and management of activity

Seatwork on previously presented material, start as class then independent work

Test administration (plan work for early finishers)

Student presentations and demos - give guidelines in advance, audience


behavior

Small-group work: lab work, promote greater comprehension, cooperative


learning, reciprocal teaching

Tests and presentations/demonstrations

Chapter 5:
Planning and Conducting
Instruction
Organizing activities - depends on number of
different topics covered in class; focus on seesay-do
Kounin: managing group instruction - activity
flow

Preventing misbehavior
-

withitness and overlapping

Managing lesson movement


-

momentum (pacing) and smoothness (continuity; ex. dangle, thrust)

Maintaining group focus


-

group alerting (tell students they might be called on next)

encouraging accountability (performance observed and evaluated)

higher participation formats: write answers, read along during instruction

Chapter 5:
Planning and Conducting
Instruction
Transition management (see
problems/solutions)
Instructional management

Planning

anticipate problems (new terms and examples, demos)

do homework to find difficulties - build hints in lesson

infuse enthusiasm into lesson

Presenting new content clearly: Learning objectives at beginning


and provide an outline for a complex lesson or video

Checking for understanding: formative and summative assessments


-

ask review questions

discuss and solve problems as a group; recitation

indicators (multiple choice question, hands to indicate response

Chapter 6:
Managing Cooperative Learning
Groups
Research on cooperative learning
-

Equal or greater learning than individualistic or competitive teaching


methods with effective cooperative groups due to increased
engagement with content; NEED feedback/instruction on how to
collaborate

Strategies and routines that support cooperative


learning
-

Room arrangement - line up desks to marks on floor for quick transitions


Talk and movement procedures: 6-inch voices, materials manager, state
timed movement expectation w/verbal reminders
Group attention signals: MS raised hands, HS turn on projector and ask
for eyes at the front; avoid interruptions/present info ahead of time
Promoting interdependence within groups: individual tasks (vary skills,
research different topic for report), group grades
Individual accountability - id contributions, peer evaluation, individual
notebooks graded at various times, individual responsibility to explain

Chapter 6:
Managing Cooperative Learning
Groups

Monitoring student work and behavior

Work the room w/clipboard to write notes about all students about
satisfactory group functioning - note degree of
explanation/demonstration and use for feedback

group and individual performance -self-monitor to identify difficulties

Interventions

Non/verbal redirect, time out/work alone, conference w/individual


students, conference w/entire group

Effective group work skills:

Social skills: teach active listening/sharing/support before group


work

Explaining skills: Rotate summarizer role, explain something to


partner and explain back, work as group to answer a question and
present to class

Leadership skills: assign presenter/discussion leader roles to build


skills

Chapter 6:
Managing Cooperative Learning
Groups
Beginning the use of cooperative learning groups

Room arrangement, procedures, and routines

Forming groups: star with pairs, working up to larger groups that


have a range of achievement levels, match extremes w/middle to
motivate lower achiever

Initial group tasks to build skills: turn to your partner and


explain/compare answers, drill partner, reading buddy, checking,
reviewers

Teaching group skills: listening, explaining, asking for help,


encouraging, and sharing - introduce one/week and give
feedback; assign and rotate roles (keep on index cards
w/behaviors) so everyone gains experience

Using group and individual rewards to practice/improve skills tickets for good behavior for toy raffle/points for fun activities

Chapter 7:
Maintaining Appropriate Student
Behavior
Monitoring student behavior

Student involvement in learning activities: active eyes, work the


room and dont spend more than 1-2 min/student, start wholegroup activity

Student compliance with classroom rules and procedures: clear


expectations that have been communicated to the class

Consistency

Inconsistency from unreasonable/inappropriate rules, no


detection of inappropriate behavior, not willing to enforce every
time

What to do if you are inconsistent


-

Re-teach procedure (discuss problem) and enforce it

Modify and reintroduce it

Or, abandon it and substitute another in its place

Chapter 7:
Maintaining Appropriate Student
Behavior
Prompt management of inappropriate
behavior

Eye contact/move closer and prompt appropriate behavior

Reminder of procedure by stating correct one or note


students who are doing what is expected

Redirect attention to task and monitor shortly thereafter

Ask/tell student to stop inappropriate behavior

Make it private: call to desk, whisper, nonverbal cues

Briefly talk to student/assess penalties

Time out at desk or another room

Chapter 7:
Maintaining Appropriate Student
Behavior
Building a positive climate

Communicate positive expectations to students: convey confidence


in students ability to do well, can do attitude, maintain high
expectations

Appropriate teacher praise (public vs private): both informative


feedback and genuine teacher approval that focuses on
accomplishment, not effort

Improving class climate through incentives or


rewards

Grades (tie as many facets of work as possible) and recognition


(display work, certificate, verbal, stickers, improvement/conduct)

Activities (PAT) and material incentives (food, games, books): relate


to behaviors most important to you (attendance, hw), everyone can
achieve it

Caution of effect of rewards: enhance or hurt? - imperfect conditions

Chapter 8:
Communication Skills for
Teaching
Constructive assertiveness

Clear statement of problem or concern and describing effects reduces student defensiveness, avoids labeling
students/behavior, use statements

Unambiguous body language: eye contact, posture, facial


expression matches tone of statements

Obtaining appropriate behavior and resolving the problem:


student needs to accept responsibility for behavior, dramatic
emphasis for evasive students

Empathic responding

Keeps lines of communication open between you and the


student and aids problem solving process

Two components: listening skills and processing skills

Chapter 8:
Communication Skills for
Teaching
Problem solving

Identify the problem: state purpose of meeting, get students point of


view/describe problem, ask students reaction; evaluate: help/hurt?

Identify and select the solution: student suggestion, multiple teacher


alternatives; positive focus with plan for improvement

Obtain a commitment: student acceptance for period of time followed


by evaluation (sometimes in a contract) with consequences if not
followed

Talking with parents

Constructive assertiveness, empathetic responding, problem solving

Express appreciation for parents efforts to meet,work w/them as a team

Focus on choices student is making and how to encourage better


decisions

Document concerns: student work and notes of behaviors

Chapter 9:
Managing Problem Behaviors
What is problem behavior?

Nonproblem: brief inattention, transition talk

Minor problem: students calling out, leaving seats, talk during


group work

Major problem, but limited in scope/effects: chronically offtask, failure to pass in hw assignments, vandalism, cheating

Escalating or spreading problem: unabated social talking, back


talk

Goals for managing problem behavior

Judge short-term (bad behaviors cease) and long-term effects


(prevention) of any management strategy chosen

Optimal: Maintain/restore order w/out adversely affecting


learning environment; should prevent repetition of problem

Chapter 9:
Managing Problem Behaviors
Management strategies

Minor interventions
-

Nonverbal cues: finger to lips, head shake, hand signal, light touch to arm

Get activity moving: quick transitions, all materials ready

Proximity: zones of proximity, combine w/nonverbal cues

Group focus: group alerting, accountability, higher participation format

Redirect behavior: state what should be done, everybody should be


writing answers to the practice problems

Provide needed instruction: check student work, whole-class instruction

Brief desist: direct eye contact and assertiveness, combine w/redirection

Give student a choice: behave appropriately or continue behavior


w/consequence, choose to clean up now or say after class until area is
clean

I-message: its distracting to me and the class when you get out of your
seat, learn awareness of effects of behavior on others

Chapter 9:
Managing Problem Behaviors
Management strategies

Moderate interventions

Withhold privilege and earn back w/appropriate behavior (sit near friends,
work together on project)

Isolate/remove problem students: desk at back of room, time out, switch if


rewarding to student, time out or walk to principals office, labels student as
excludable

Fine or penalty: extra work, but defined as punishment - quick to


administer, but content negatively affected, non-content (look up and copy
10 definitions)

Detention best for behaviors that involve time (tardiness, time-wasting


behavior) or repeated rule violations; adv: disliked, administered away from
classroom; disadv: takes teacher time, student skipping, additional records

Referral to office for fighting, vandalism, rudeness and disrespect; adv:


effective limit, short-circuit escalating situation; disadv: depends on others
for effectiveness, potential for discrimination; use sparingly

Chapter 9:
Managing Problem Behaviors
Management strategies

More extensive interventions

Design individual contract with student - problem solving

Conference w/parent: describe situation and appreciate support that parent gives
to help understand and resolve problem, have grade book handy - require time
and energy

Check (name on board)/demerit (record that student signs to accept


responsibility) system; adv: set/maintain limits, consequences are clear; disadv:
catch bad behaviors, hard to detect behaviors

Problem solving

Think time strategy - remove student to another teachers classroom, debriefing


form: what was behavior? what behavior do you need to display upon return?

Reality therapy: establish caring relationship, focus on behavior, accept


responsibility, evaluate behavior, make plan, commitment to follow plan, following
up

Peer mediation: students trained to listen/clarify issues, help negotiate, write


solution

Chapter 9:
Managing Problem Behaviors
Special problems

Chronic avoidance of work: good records a must


-

Ability: break assignment into parts/modify assignment

Parent phone call, reach out to coaches, no grade leniency

Fighting: injury if intervene? disperse crowd, get help

Other aggressive behavior: all behavior, even if playful, is


unacceptable; respect others; one warning; separate students;
conference w/student

Bullying: bullying prevention programs, monitor student behavior, talk


with class about behavior and effects, bully and victim problem solving,
involve school counselor, incorporate social skills training in class

Disrespect/hostility towards teacher: dont go brainstem


-

Best to defuse: keep it private and individual conference with student

Depersonalize: This is taking time away from class. I will discuss it with you in a
few minutes when I have time.

Chapter 10:
Managing Special Groups
Teaching heterogeneous classes

Assessing entering achievement: previous tests, pre-tests, monitor


initial classwork (class notes, summary from book)
Modifying whole group instruction: participation (pacing),
procedures for managing student work, thoughtful seating
arrangement, assignments: EC and enrichment, peer tutoring
(expectations and management skills)
Cooperative work groups
Small (homogeneous) group instruction: location of group/seating,
materials/storage/accessibility, student movement/transitions, outof-group procedures and expectations
Mastery learning: re-take tests until proficient by providing
increased feedback

Labor intensive: managerial skills, alt. forms of tests, extra grading,


scheduling, enrichment activities, recordkeeping
Develop/introduce incrementally, due dates, specified days for test re-takes

Chapter 10:
Managing Special Groups
Teaching remedial classes

Learner characteristics: high absence/tardies, arbitrary grades,


frequent failure, poor study skills, low attention span

Establishing your management system: continually reinforce


procedures and routines, question class, practice, feedback

Monitoring behavior and prompt responses

Managing student work of daily/weekly grades for frequent


feedback, grade for effort/performance, incorporate participation
(involvement, learning, attendance)

Planning and presenting instruction


-

Short activity segments w/frequent assessment of understanding (see, say,


do)

Extra attention to presenting directions and instruction clearly

Build teaching of study skills in lesson (note taking, identifying main ideas)

Chapter 10:
Managing Special Groups
Students with special needs

Content mastery classroom: provide extra help, extra time for tests, staffed
w/special education teachers who can provide suggestions for adapting
teaching/management

Inclusion - special education students in general education classrooms: IEPs,


regular planned meetings for progress and support, assignment modifications

Emotional/behavioral problems
-

communication with all, overlook minor inappropriate behavior, reinforce


acceptable behavior, identify/reduce/prevent stressors, temporary lowered
expectation on bad days, offer structured choices, allow leaving classroom

remember you are convenient target, but not cause of anger

Serious social deficits (ASD)


-

odd social skills with poor communication skills, extreme anxiety to


change/unmet expectations, acute sensitivity to sounds, poor motor skills,
stereotyped movement

use visual prompts, brief instructions (write down), social stories, strengths and
interests in teaching to provide ways to develop talents, social feedback

Chapter 10:
Managing Special Groups
Students with special needs

ADHD:
-

distractible, impulsive, disorganized

predictability and structure, ask others what works best for them, make sure
you have their attention when giving clear/brief instructions, observe as they
work, remind/reinforce effort and accuracy over speed, finger card/marker for
reading

Deaf/hard-of-hearing: auditory devices, center of room seat, projector not


chalkboard, repeat/rephrase info, restate responses, close monitoring, note takers

Bind/visually-impaired: board work - read aloud, tape recorders, hands-on work,


change in activity to prevent tiring, seat w/back to window, move as needed

Extreme poverty: increased communication and relationship building, presentation


of non-weak image/insolence, extra materials/supplies, bracket anxieties, peer
buddy, provide underlying assumptions for behavior, + self-talk, help another
student

Limited English proficiency: understanding of English, learn key words in native


lanuage, body language/gestures, visual aids, long receptive period before
confident in classroom, consult counselor if language barrier prevents benefit from
instruction