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AIR BREATHING

HYPERSONIC PROPULSION

Kiran Babu K M
Department of Aeronautical Engineering
Karpagam Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641 105.

Introduction

to

Hypersonic

Air

Breathing

Propulsion
Hypersonic Vehicles
Supersonic
Combustion
and
Need
for
Supersonic Combustion for Hypersonic Vehicles
Problems
Associated
with
Supersonic
Combustion
Engine/Airframe
Integration
Aspects
of
Hypersonic Vehicles
Various types of Scramjet Combustors
Fuel Injection Schemes in Scramjet Combustors

What is Hypersonic Speed?


Hypersonic speed refers to the speeds above MACH No 5,
with molecular dissociation and ionization due to high
temperature at high speeds
The peculiar characteristics of flow at hypersonic speeds are,
Shock Layer
Aerodynamic Heating

Entropy Layer
Real Gas Effects
Low Density Effects
Independence of Aerodynamic Coefficients with Mach Number

SCRAMJET
SCRAMJET is a variant of air breathing ramjet
engine with the combustion taking place at the
supersonic speeds.
Advantages
Does not have to carry oxygen
No rotating parts makes it easier to manufacture than a turbojet
Has a higher specific impulse than a rocket engine; could provide
between 1000 and 4000 seconds, while a rocket only provides 450
seconds or less
Higher speed could mean cheaper access to outer space in the future

Disadvantages
Difficult / expensive testing and development
Very high initial propulsion requirements

The Specific Impulse of


various Propulsion Systems

SCRAMJET TEST RUN

Critical Challenges in
Development of SCRAMJET
Engine
Supersonic combustion ramjet engine for an airbreathing propulsion system has been realized and
demonstrated by USA on ground and in flight. X- 43
vehicle used hydrogen fuel.
Critical challenges involved in the development of
SCRAMJET Engine are,

Mixing of Fuel, Ignition and Flame Holding in


Combustor
Ground Test Facilities and
Numerical Simulations

SCRAMJET ENGINE FUELS

Hypersonic Vehicles

Boeing X-51 - WAVE RIDER

W14 - Missile

HSDTV

Proposed Single Stage to


Orbit Launch

Issues in Hypersonic Air


Breathing Propulsion

Airframe
Integrated
Scramjet Design
Challenges

Flight
Testing

Challenges of
Hypersonic
Air Breathing
Propulsion

Design
Methods
and
Optimizatio
n

Experimental
Facilities,
Measurements and
Test Methodology

Challenges of Hypersonic
Air Breathing Propulsion

Operating Efficiently and Reliably over a extraordinary range of Flight


Conditions.

Accomplishing stable and efficient mixing of fuel for supersonic


combustion within a burner of reasonable size.

Providing the necessary structural integrity for reusable systems


operating at the extreme environmental conditions

Developing the tools that enable confident control over the engine design
and reliable prediction of the actual behavior of the system.

Developing the facilities that enable vehicle and engine ready for routine
operations by means of ground testing and flight testing of the
experimental vehicles.

Engine/Airframe Integration

Engine/Airframe
Integration
Aspects of Hypersonic
Vehicles