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Topic 1
Circuit and Instruments Overview

Dual Rail Power Supply

SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM

Multi-meter as Troubleshooting
Instruments
An electronic measuring instrument that combines
several measurement functions in one unit.
A typical multimeter would include basic features such
as the ability to measure voltage, current, and
resistance.
Multimeters come in two types: digital and analog.

Testing Voltage
AC or DC
Select range. For analog meter set the range at
highest.
For AC voltage, take the leads and apply them to the
test point. Caution: No part of our body having
contact to the test point.
For DC voltage, connect the black test lead to the
negative polarity point (ground) and the red lead to
the positive polarity test point.
Then take a reading.

Testing current
There are several ways of current measurement. The
most common using clamp meter.
The advantage of using clamp meter, no need to open
the circuit.
By using multi-meter, digital or analog the circuit
must be opened to let the current flows into the
meter.
The most common step, determine type of current
before doing measurement.
Set the range and record the reading

Testing resistance
First step, turn off the power in the circuit or
component you're testing.
Measuring with power-on, cause damage to
meter and wrong reading.
Select resistance range and connect probe to
component under test.
Make sure contact for measurement free from oil,
dirt or any material affect the reading.

Testing continuity
The continuity is required to ensure current
flows in circuit.
Switches, fuses, conductors, and wire
connectors demand good continuity.
A common continuity test verifies that the test
leads are good before using the DMM.
Set the dial to the continuity function.
The DMM will beep if there is good continuity,
or a good path that allows
current to flow. If there is no continuity, the
DMM won't beep.

Testing capacitance
To test capacitance, set the dial on the DMM to
the capacitance function and plug in your
leads.
Discharge the capacitor before measuring.
If the measurement is similar to the rating
listed on the capacitor, the capacitor is good.
A significant variation from the rating
indicates the capacitor should be replaced.

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Testing frequency
Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) the
number of times per second a waveform repeats.
To test frequency, set the function switch to Hz.
Plug in your leads and connect them to the
circuit.
Read the measurement and compare it with the
frequency listed for the component under test.

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Oscilloscope as a Troubleshooting
Instruments

Oscilloscopes are an important tool in any electrical engineers lab. They


allow you to see electric signals as they vary over time, which can be
critical in diagnosing why your 555

timer circuit isnt blinking correctly, or why your noise maker isnt
reaching maximum

annoyance levels.

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Cont

The main purpose of an


oscilloscope is to graph an
electrical signal as it varies over
time.

Most scopes produce a two


dimensional graph with time on
the xaxis and voltage on the
yaxis.

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What Can Scopes Measure


Timing characteristics:
Frequency and period Frequency is defined as the number
of times per second a waveform repeats. And the period is
the reciprocal of that (number of seconds each repeating
waveform takes).
Duty cycle The percentage of a period that a wave is either
positive or negative (there are both positive and negative
duty cycles). The duty cycle is a ratio that tells you how long
a signal is on versus how long its off each period.
Rise and fall time Signals cant instantaneously go from 0V
to 5V, they have to smoothly rise. The duration of a wave
going from a low point to a high point is called the rise time,
and fall time measures the opposite. These characteristics
are important when considering how fast a circuit can
respond to signals.

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Voltage characteristics:
Amplitude Amplitude is a measure of the
magnitude of a signal. There are a variety of
amplitude measurements including peaktopeak
amplitude, which measures the absolute
difference between a high and low voltage point
of a signal. Peak amplitude, on the other hand,
only measures how high or low a signal is past
0V.

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Maximum and minimum voltages The


scope can tell you exactly how high and low
the voltage of your signal gets.
Mean and average voltages Oscilloscopes
can calculate the average or mean of your
signal, and it can also tell you the average of
your signals minimum and maximum
voltage.

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When to Use an Oscilloscope


The oscilloscope is useful in a variety of
troubleshooting and research situations, including:
Determining the frequency and amplitude of a
signal, which can be critical in debugging a circuits
input, output, or internal systems. From this, you
can tell if a component in your circuit has
malfunctioned.
Identifying how much noise is in your circuit.
Identifying the shape of a wave sine, square,
triangle, sawtooth, complex, etc.
Quantifying phase differences between two different
signals.

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Topic 2
Circuit Measurement and Analysis

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Circuit Configuration

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Result

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Complete circuit

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Topic 3
Fault Measurement and Analysis

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A fault in a circuit is any failure that interferes with the normal system
operation. In this learning module we create fault to the circuit to obtain
the possible result to compare with the result in previous chapter.

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Cont

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Cont
The inability of leakage capacitor to store its
full capacitance and the reduction of filter
capability will increase the ripple voltage thus
increasing the noise level. As shown in the
diagram the dc output voltage for the fault line
is reduced from 13.8528V to 12.0363V

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Effect on Transformer fault

End of slide
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Thank You