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Chapter 8

Communication and Consumer


Behaviour
Consumer Behaviour
Canadian Edition
Schiffman/Kanuk/Das
Copyright 2006
Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Opening Vignette

What is Mad Cow Disease?


- communication is the key to changing attitudes
- Communication can be written, verbal, visual
or a combination of all three

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What is Communication?
The

transmission of a message from a


sender to a receiver via a medium of
transmission.

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Elements of the
Communications Process
The

Message Initiator (the Source)


The Sender
The Receiver
The Medium
The Message
The Target Audience (the Receivers)
Feedback - the Receivers Response
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Medium

can be:

Impersonal (mass media)


Interpersonal (with salesperson or a friend)
Interactive (direct feedback possibility exists)

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Factors That Affect The


Communication Process
Characteristics

of the source
Message characteristics
Characteristics of the receiver
Characteristics of the medium

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Issues in Credibility
Credibility

of Informal Sources

Opinion leaders

Credibility

of Impersonal, Neutral Sources


Credibility of Marketer-Related Sources
Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers
Sleeper Effect

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Endorser Credibility Is High


When
Match

exists between product attributes and


endorser attributes
Match exists between demographic
characteristics of target audience and
endorser
The product lies within the competence of
the endorser
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Endorser credibility Contd

Endorser

credibility is not a substitute for


corporate credibility

Is

important when message


comprehension is low

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Sleeper Effect
The

idea that both positive and negative


credibility effects tend to disappear after a
period of time.
Differential decay: memory of negative
cues disappear faster than the message itself
Source is forgotten before the message

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Message Characteristics
Message

Credibility

Reputation of the retailer


Consumers previous experience with product
Reputation of the medium

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Message Characteristics- contd


Message

Structure and Presentation

Resonance or wordplay
Message Framing: positive or negative
One-sided versus Two-sided Messages
Comparative Advertising
Order Effects
Repetition
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Message Characteristics- contd


Advertising Appeal

Used

Factual or Emotional

Types

of Emotional Appeals

Fear
Humor
Abrasive advertising
Sex in advertising
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Characteristics of the Target


Market
Demographic

Characteristics
Involvement and Congruency
central route to persuasion for high
involvement products
peripheral route to persuasion for low
involvement products
Mood
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Characteristics of the Medium Newspaper

Access to large
audiences
Effective for local
reach
Flexible
Fast
Feedback possible
through coupon
redemption, etc.

Not selective
Short message life
Clutter
Cost varies based on
ad size and vehicle
circulation

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Characteristics of the Medium Magazines

Highly selective
Selective binding
possible
High quality
production
High credibility
Long message life
High pass along rate

Long lead time


High clutter
Delayed and indirect
feedback
Rates vary based on
circulation and
selectivity

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Characteristics of the Medium Television

Large audiences
possible

Appeals to many senses

Emotion and attention

possible
Demonstration possible
Very high costs overall
Low costs per contact

Long lead time


High clutter
Short message life
Viewers can avoid
exposure with
zapping, etc.
Day-after recall tests
for feedback

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Characteristics of the Medium Radio


High

geographic
and demographic
selectivity
Short lead time
Relatively
inexpensive
Good local
coverage

Short exposure time


Audio only
High clutter
Zapping possible
Delayed feedback
through day-after
recall tests

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Characteristics of the Medium Internet

Potential for audience


selectivity
Customized tracking
possible and other
feedback tools
possible
Useful for branding
and reinforcement of
messages

Demographic skew to
audience
Very high clutter
Zapping possible
Great variation in
pricing
Privacy concerns

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Characteristics of the Medium


Direct Mail

High audience
selectivity
Personalization
possible
Novel, interesting
stimuli possible
Low clutter

Perception of junk
mail
Feedback possible
through response
High cost per contact

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Characteristics of the Medium


Direct Marketing

Development of
databases
High audience
selectivity
Relatively free of
clutter

Privacy concerns
Measurable responses
Cost per inquiry, cost
per sale, revenue per
ad can be calculated

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Barriers to Communication
Selective Perception
Wandering, Zapping, Zipping, and Channel
Surfing
Combat with Roadblocking
Psychological Noise
Combat with repeated exposures, contrast in the
copy, and teasers
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Communication and Marketing


Strategy

Establish communication objectives


Select target audience
Choose the best media
Develop suitable message strategies
Match message with audience characteristics
Develop suitable message structure, presentation
Develop suitable message appeals

Reduce barriers to effective communication


Measure effectiveness of marketing
communications
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