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Software Project Management

((SPM

Lecture 9
Software Quality Management
Dr. Daniel Keret

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Reading Assignment

Software Project Management, Bob Hughes and Mike


Cotterell, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edition.
•Chapter 12

A Guide to the Project Management Body of


Knowledge, PMI Publications, 3rd Edition, 2004
•Chapter 8

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Quality Management
 Software Quality Standards
– ISO
– CMM
 Quality Planning
– Cost Benefit Analysis
– Benchmarking
– Cost Of Quality
– Quality Management Plan
 Quality Assurance
– Metrics Measurements
– Corrective Actions
– Preventive Actions
 Quality Control
– Audits, Analysis
– Checklist

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Software Project Quality Management
 The Activities that Determine Quality POLICIES,
OBJECTIVES, RESPONSIBILITIES.
 It includes the PLANNING, ASSURANCE and
CONTROL of the POLICIES, PROCEDURES and
PROCESSES
 Forecast the End Result Quality during the
Development Stages
 Special Characteristic of Software:
– Increasing Criticality and Importance of Software
– Intangibility of software is a source for Unpredicted Errors
– Software Errors are accumulating through the project life
cycle

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Software
Product Operation:
Product Quality Factors
– Correctness (follow specifications),
– Reliability (number of errors, fault tolerance, simplicity),
– Efficient (optimize resources usage: storage, memory, CPU)
– Integrity (access control & audit to processes and data)
– Usability (ease of use/training, operation)
 Product Revision (changes, enhancements)
– Testing (effort required, regression tests)
– Flexibility (effort required to modify the functionality)
– Maintenance (effort required to locate and fix a bug: modularity, no
duplication of code, documentation)
 Product Flexibility (Transition)
– Portability (change h/w, operating system, compiler, etc)
– Interoperability (integrate with other systems, flexible data and interface
structures)
– Reusability (can be used as part of another application as a whole or parts
– platform free, modular design)

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Software Quality Standards
 ISO 9001 (International Organization for Standardization)
– Defines the needs from a monitor & control system to check
quality
– Certification of the Design, Development, Production,
Installation an Service Processes
– Describes the fundamental features of Quality Management
System (QMS)
– Useful in selecting a sub-contractor with “best practices”
quality processes.
– Deals with quality of the development process, not with the
quality of the product

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ISO 9001 Principles
– Determine the NEEDS and Expectations of the customer
– Establish Quality Policy and imply the actual quality objectives
– Design the project activities to include the quality objectives
– Assign responsible parties to all the quality objectives
– Allocate enough and knowledgeable resources
– Implement methods to measure the quality objectives in each process
– Collect & Analyze the Measurements and Identify discrepancies
– Define action items to eliminate the cause of the discrepancies
– Documentation (follows quality manual) of the actual (updated) operation
of an activity that includes objectives, plans, procedures and records
– The QMS is well managed and knowledgeable resources are assigned to the
Quality Management Process.
– Demonstrate that the Production Process is well defined, designed, recorded,
communicated and measured.
– Sub-Contractors and Purchasing are managed in the same manners.

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CMM – Capability Maturity Model
 Software Development Methods and Tools which are Likely to
produce Quality Software
 Software Companies are assigned a level ( 1 to 5 ) of Process
Maturity that indicates the quality of their software production
practices
 Level 1: Initial Level
– Default level, no defined quality process throughout the
organization. Some projects may adopt some measures.
 Level 2: Repeatable Level
– Basic Project Management in place, not in the activities level
 Level 3: Defined Level
– Project Management Plan is well defined at all levels
 Level 4: Managed Level
– Products & Processes are Measured and Controlled
 Level 5: Optimizing Level
– Process Improvement is introduced based on documented
data gathered from previous projects, processes.

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Quality Planning
 Identify the Project Quality Standards
 Determine how to Satisfy the Standards
 Inputs:
– Enterprise Factors (law, regulations, standards)
– Organizational Factors ( QA policies)
– Scope Statement (objectives, thresholds, acceptance criteria,
performance criteria, etc.)
– Project Management Plan
 Tools & Techniques
– Cost Benefit Analysis
• Cost Of Quality: Expenses associated with the Project
Quality Management
• Benefit: Less Rework, higher productivity, lower cost, higher
stakeholder satisfaction
– Benchmarking Compare the project process practices to other
projects to get ideas for improvements
– Others: Brainstorming, Flowcharts

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Quality Planning - Output
 Quality Management Plan
– How the project management will implement the quality policy
– Quality Control Plan
– Quality Assurance Plan
– Continuous Improvement Plan
 Quality Metrics
– Detailed Plan of what will be measured, actual values
 Quality Checklist
– Structured tool. Process, Activity based. Templates can be available
from prior projects or QA organizations.
 Quality Baseline
– The quality OBJECTIVES of the project
– The basis for measuring and reporting
 Process Improvement Plan
– Identification of WASTE and NON-VALUE ADDED activities
– Set TARGETS for Improved performance

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Quality Assurance - QA
 A QA Department in the Organization
 Observe that the project will employ all processes
needed to meet Quality Targets
 QA support & Knowledge Base
 Provides Umbrella for Continuous Process
Improvement
 Recommend Corrective Actions and Updates to the
Project Plan
 Update Organizational Process Assets

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Software Metrics
”“You Can Not Control What You Can Not Measure
 Retain Records (historical data) – Used to evaluate future
projects (sizing,schedule, cost, effort)
 Problem Reporting – Supply Information about problem
fixing (cycle, time, amount, frequency, etc.)
 Quality Assurance Plan – Define Quality Thresholds (What
is the definition of “Low System Complexity”)
 Corporate Quality Goals – Measure progress toward the
Goals
 Types of Software Metrics
– Directly Observed: Number of Test Cases, Project Cost
– Predicted: Project Baseline Cost, Estimate To Complete
– Calculated: Productivity=KLOC/Staff-Months

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Useful Metrics
 Precise or Defined with Clear Tolerance,
 Well Defined Methods of Data Collection
 Helps to Measure the Organization/Project Quality
Goals
 Simple & Easy to understand
 Inexpensive to Use
 Robust
 Consistent and Used Over Time
 Easy To Collect
 Easy to Access (online)

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Software Metrics – Examples of
Direct Observations
 Control Chart - Upper/Lower Control Limit ( Usually the
Corporate or Project Quality Targets)
– Actual Measures per Module/Activity VS Corporate Goals. The
Average Project Measurement implies the overall project compliance.
Deviation from the control limits indicate problem in a specific
Module/Activity
– Typical Metric: Design Review Hours Invested per Module.
 Total Hours to investigate and resolve problem per
predefined problem types (interface, documentation, input
data, computational, etc.)
 Defects Discovered and Defect Fixed Over Time
 Mean Age of: Open Problems at the end of the Month
Closed Problems at Month End

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Continuous Process Improvement
 Main Goals:
– Continuous Improvement in Resource Planning (increase
the probability to deliver accurate estimates)
– Continuous Reduction in Waste/Non-Productive Project
Activities.
– Continuous Improvement in Other Corporate Quality Goals
 Values in Software Activities
– Value Added: Design, Code, Test, Install, Etc.
– Non Value Added but Essential: Acceptance Testing, Setup,
Training, Etc.
– Non Value Added and Nonessential: Retest, Rework,
Management, Installing Software Tools, Delays, Etc.
 Value Metrics: Value/Total, Non-Value Essential/Non-
essential, Value+Essential/Total

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Quality Control - QC
 Monitor SPECIFIC project results to determine its
compliance with the Quality Standards
 Identify ways to eliminate CAUSES of unsatisfactory
results
 Continuous Process
 Uses Sampling and Probability analysis
 Analysis Types
– Prevention & Inspection
– Sampling (check conformance (Yes/No) to standards, goals,
Etc)
– Variables Sampling – Level Of Conformance with
Standards/Goals
– Special Causes/Unusual Events
– Tolerance (results fall within/outside the control limits)

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QC – Tools & Techniques
 Cause & Effect Diagram
– Per Major Defect (E.G: Users Interface Issues)
– Cause: Guidelines not Followed
• Reasons: Did not read the guidelines(no time), Can not
find the guidelines (No central Location)
– Cause: Lack of users feedback
• Reasons: Lack of users resources, Prototype not clear
enough, No process to get early feedbacks
 Control Charts
 Flowcharting (activities, decision points, sequencing) – Can point
potential quality issues
 Histogram – Number of Defects per Problem Type
 Pareto Chart – 80/20 rule. Order Defects by Number of Defect
and focus on those that causes the majority

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.(QC – Tools & Techniques (Cont
 Run Charts/Scatter Diagram (indicate trends over time)
Examples:
– Failure rate (defect found per test hour) over Cumulative test
time
– New Defects/Resolved defect per week over weeks
 Statistical Sampling
 Inspection
 Defect Repair Reviews

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