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A. Linguistics : the study of language as a system of human
B. Linguistics includes many different approaches to the study of
language and many different areas of investigation :
1) sound systems (phonetics, phonology),
2) sentence structure (syntax),
3) relationships between language and cognition (cognitive
4) meaning systems (semantics, pragmatics, functions of
5) language and social factors (sociolinguistics).
C. Several specialized branches of linguistics have also developed in
combination with other disciplines, e.g.
1) applied linguistics,
3) anthropological linguistics,
2) psycholinguistics,
4) forensic linguistics.

1. Language : the system of human communi-cation which
consists of the structured arrangement of sounds (or their
written repre-sentation) into larger units, e.g. morphemes,
words, sentences, utterances.
2. Morphemes : the smallest meaningful unit in a language
( e.g. un-.., dis-, -ment, good)
3. Word: the smallest of the linguistic units which can occur on its
own in speech or writing.
4. Sentence: the largest unit of grammatical organization within
parts of speech (e.g. nouns, verbs, adverbs) and
grammatical classes (e.g. word, phrase, clause) are said to
5. Utterance: a unit of analysis in speech which has been defined
in various ways but most commonly as a sequence of words
within a single persons turn at talk that falls under a single
intonation contour.

1. Phonetics: the study of speech sound which can be distinguished into main areas:
articulatory phonetics (production of speech sounds), acoustic phonetics (transmission
of speech sounds), and auditory phonetics (perception of speech sounds).
2. Phonology covers phonetics and phonemics (the study or description of the
distinctive sound units (phonemes) of a
language and their relationship to one another.
3. Syntax : a system of rules which describe how all well-formed sentences of a language
can be derived from basic elements (morphemes, words, part of speech).
4. Semantics: the study of meaning, which deals with polysemy, synonymy, antonymy,
hyponymy, idiom, etc
5. Pragmatics: the study of the use of language in communication, particularly the
relationships between sentences and the contexts and situations in which they are used.
6. Sociolinguistics : the study of language in relation to social factors, that is social class,
educational level and type of education, age, sex, ethnic origin, etc.
7. Cognitive linguistics: an approach to linguistics which stresses the interaction
between language and cognition, focusing on language as an instrument for organizing,
processing, and conveying information.
8. Morphology : the study of morphemes and their different forms (allomorphs), and the
way they combine in word formation.


1. Applied linguistics: 1) the study of second and foreign
language learning and teaching. 2) the study of language
and linguistics in relation to practical problems, such as
lexicography, translation, speech pathology, etc.
2. Anthropological linguistics : a branch of linguistics
which studies the relationship between language
and culture in a community, e.g. its traditions, beliefs, and
family structure.
3. Psycholinguistics: the study of (a) the mental processes
that a person uses in producing and understanding
language, and (b) how humans learn language.
4. Forensic linguistics: a branch of applied linguistics that
investigates issues of language in relation to the law,
drawing on resources from semantics, acoustic phonetics,
discourse analysis, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, and other

1. a. Sociolinguistics refers to the study of language
in relation to social factors, that is, social class,
educational level and type of education, age, sex,
ethnic origin, etc.
(Richards, et al., 1995: 262).
b. Sociolinguistics is the study of language in
relation to society ( Wardhaugh, 1998: 13)
2. a. Sociology of language refers to the study of
in relation to language
(Wardhaugh, 1998: 13).
b. Sociology of language is the study of
varieties and their users within social
framework (Richards, et al.,1995: 262).


A. Properties of Language (1)
1. Vocal-Auditory Channel : Sound produced by the vocal
organs, which are then received by ears.
2. Convertibility to Other Media : Such media are writing and
print (the graphic medium), sign language ( a visual
medium) and Braille (a tactile medium).
3. Use of Arbitrary Symbols : There is no link in most words
between the form used and the the meaning expressed.
4. Duality or Double Articulation : Language is made of two
layers : a layer of sounds and a layer of meanings
5. Interdependence : Language is an integrated structure in
which the role of every item is defined by that of all other
items in the same system
6. Open-endednes (creativity, productivity) : The number of
utterances produced is indefinitely large
7. Displacement : language is used to refer to events removed
in time and place

A. Properties of Language (2)
8. Continual Change : Language is always changing.
9. Reciprocity/ Turn-taking : Spoken language involves
structured interchanges in which people take it in turn to talk.
10. Purely human activity : Only human beings have a system
of symbols (words) used to communicate.
11. Non-instinctive : Language has to be learnt as a system of
arbitrary conventional symbols
12 Cultural transmission : a person acquires a language in a
culture with other speakers and not from parental genes.
Language is passed on from one generation to the next in
that way.
13 Discreteness : the sounds used in language are meaningful
distinct. For example , the difference between a p and a b in
pack and back leads to a distinction in meaning.

1. Communication refers to the transmission of information ( a message )
between a source and a receiver, using a signalling system
2. The study of human communication in all its modes is called semiotics.
3. Modes of Communication
A. Tactile communication involves touch (as in shaking hands, grasping
someones arm or shoulder) and manipulation of physical distance and
body orientation in order to communicate indifferences or disagreement.
The study of tactile communicative behaviour is proxemics.
B. Visual communication involves the use of facial expression (as in
smiling, winking, eyebrow flashing which communicates a wide range of
emotions) and gestures and body postures. The study of visual
communicative behaviour is kinesics.
C. The chief branch of communication studies involves oral-aural mode, in
the form of speech, and its systemic visual reflex in the form of writing.
These are the verbal aspects of communication, distinguished from
the non-verbal aspects (kinesics and proxemics) (McArthur, 1992:

of linguistic expression
1. Variety refers to any system

whose use is governed by situational variables (regional,

occupational, social class etc.) (Crystal, 1980: 372).
2. Dialect refers to a regional, temporal or social variety of
a language , differing in pronunciation,, grammar, and
vocabulary from the standard, which is in itself a socially
favored dialect . If the variant differs only in pronunciation
it is often called accent (Hartman and Stork, 1972: 65).
3. Sociolect: dialects which identify where a person is in
terms of a social scale . They are also called social
dialects or class dialects.
4. Style: the personal use an individual makes in speech or
writing of the language at his disposal.
5. Register : Linguistic varieties that are linked to
occupations, professions, or topics (Trudgill, 1983: 100-1)



1. Vernacular language generally refers to the most

colloquial variety in a persons linguistic repertoire and is
used for everyday interaction, without implying that it is
appropriate only in informal domains (Holmes, 1996:80).
2. standard language refers to the form of a language
used, for example, in general publishing, the news
media, education, government, such professions
as law and medicine, and by especially the middle
classes (McArthur, 1992: 984)
3. Lingua franca : a language which is used
habitually by people whose mother tongues are
different in order to facilitate communication
between them (Wardhaugh, 1998: 55).


1. Pidgin is a marginal language which
arises to fulfill certain restricted
communicative needs among people who
have no common language, then pidgins
are probably more generally the outcome
of any situations of language contact.
(Romaine, 1988: 24).
2. Creole language is a mixed natural
language composed of elements of
different languages in areas of intensive
contact (Hartman and Stork, 1972: 56).


1. Language change can be defined as

the modification of the forms of
language over a period of time and/or
physical distance (McArthur, 1992: 575).
2. All aspects of language structure and
use are subject to changes, but the most
noticeable and frequent changes affect
pronunciation and vocabulary, and it is
these which have attracted most study.


1. Sound Change: change in the pronunciation of words

over a period of time. For example,
there has been a
sound change from Middle English /a: / to Modern English
/ei/: Middle English /na:m / Modern English /neim/ name.
2. Grammatical Change: The distinction between who (as in
the person who bought the painting) and whom (as in the
person whom I like best) is being lost, with many speakers
using who in both cases and a tendency among younger
speakers to use that for both.
3. Lexical/ Semantic Change: New words and expressions
are constantly entering the language, e.g. bailout (rescue
by a
government of a company on the brink of failure),
blogosphere (all the worlds BLOGs and their

1. Language acquisition is the process by which humans
acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to
understand and communicate. This capacity involves the
picking up of diverse capacities including syntax, phonetics,
and an extensive vocabulary.
2. First language acquisition (L1 Acquisition studies
infants' acquisition of their native language or their first
3. Second language acquisition (SLA) : the way in which
people learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside
or outside of a classroom. Second language acquisition
includes learning a new language in a foreign language context
(e,g. English in Indonesia) as well as learning a new language
in a host language environment (e.g. Inonesian in Indonesia).


1. Imitation. The main factor in learning to talk is being able to imitate ...
language learning is also bound to imitation.... Children discover a
system in spoken utterances, which they imitate.
2. Reinforcement. Reinforcement is a stimulus which follows the
occurrence of a response and affects the probability of that response
occurring or not occurring again. Reinfor-cement is distinguished into two
types positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.
3. Innateness. Human knowledge develops from structures, processes,
and ideas which are in the mind at birth (i.e. are innate), rather than
from the environment, and that these are responsible for the basic
structure of language and how it is
learned. This hypothesis has been used to explain how children are able
to learn language.
4. Input . The input hypothesis is vey consistent with what is known about
caretaker speech, the modifications that parents and others make when
talking to young children.
5. Cognition. The main alternative account argues that language
acquisition must be viewed within the context of a childs intellectual



1. The Acquisition-Learning Distinction

a. Adults have two distinct and independent ways of developing
competence in a second language.
b. Language acquisition is a process similar to the way children
develop ability in their first language.
c. It is a subconscious process.
d. they are learning for communication.
e. Language acquisition is also called implicit learning, informal
learning, and natural learning. In non-technical language,
acquisition is picking up a language.
f. The other way to develop a competence in a second language is
by language learning.
g. This term is used to refer to conscious knowledge of L2, knowing
the rules, being aware of them, and being able to talk about them.
h. Language learning is synonymous with formal knowledge of a
language, or explicit learning.


2. The Natural Order Hypothesis
Language acquisition is a gradual process that can take
anywhere from several months to several years.
3. The Monitor Hypothesis
The monitor hypothesis posits that acquisition and learning are
used in vey specific ways. Normally acquisition initiates our
utterances in a second language and is responsible for our
fluency. Leaning has only one function, and that is as a Monitor,
or editor. Learning comes into play only to make changes in the
form of our utterance, after it has been produced by the
acquired system.
4. The Input Hypothesis
The input hypothesis states we acquire language by going for
meaning first, and as a result, we acquire structure.
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The Affective Filter hypothesis states how affective factors
relate to the second language acquisition process.

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