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Study of integrated Conservation

Agriculture models for

sustainability in the rainfed areas
of Madhya Pradesh
Submitted to:
AKRSP-I (Aga Khan Rural Support Program -India)

Conservation Agriculture

Modern farming concept for resource-saving

agricultural crop production and aims to achieve
acceptable profits and sustainable production
together with conservation of the environment

Continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance

(minimum tillage)

Permanent organic soil cover (surface mulch)

Diversified crop rotations for

annual crops or plant associations

for perennial crops

Problems in traditional
farming practices:

Leads to reduction of soil organic matter in the

long run

Soil erosion

Loss of biodiversity i.e. destruction of

biological life

Increasing cost of cultivation

Soil erosion due to tillage operations and surface runoff

Advantages of Conservation

Provides a sustainable production system

Stabilizes the soil moisture and temperature in the

surface layers ie Improved infiltration and retention
of soil moisture

Habitat for a number of organisms

Reduction of the production costs, reduction of

time and labour

Reduce surface runoff and thus reduce soil erosion

Increased humus formation.

Objectives of the study:

Objective 1. Cost benefit analysis of the CA model with
respect to different growing models of the Dedtalai cluster
Objective 2. To analyze the existing practices followed
by the farmers in both the clusters
Objective 3. To analyze the reasons of farmers dropout
from Khalwa cluster
Objective 4. Analyze the reviews of farmers of both the


Census or population study

Khalwa cluster there are 11 new farmers and 5 dropout


Dedtalai cluster there are 22 farmers which include both

new and existing farmers

Sources of data collection:

Primary Sources of Data Collection:





Structured Interview

Secondary Sources of Data Collection:



(Aga Khan Rural Support Programme-

Cost Benefit Analysis of Dedtalai


Considered cultivation area as 1 acre. (1 acre= 4046.8 m2)

CBA of maize only i.e. rabi season crop

Input cost includes:

Cost of seeds (quantity and price)

Cost of manures and fertilizers (quantity and price)

Cost of pesticides (quantity and price)

Irrigation expenses

Machinery equipment expenses(tractor, power tiller,

thresher, ploughs etc)


Cost of labours

Transportation charges

Bullock labour charges

Output cost includes:

Revenue of seeds sold

Revenue of fodder or byproducts if any

Total profit obtained is Rs. 922.50 in case of traditional farming



profit obtained is Rs. 6,432.50 in case of CA.

So we can see that there is an extra profit of Rs. 5,510 (Rs. 6,432.50-Rs.
922.50) for doing Conservation Agriculture practices

Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) ignoring the opportunity cost of labours,

bullock labour cost, and mulching materials cost.

Total profit obtained is Rs. 1,122.50 in case of traditional farming


Total profit obtained is Rs. 6,582.50 in case of CA.

So we can see that there is an extra profit of Rs. 5,460 (Rs.

6,582.50-Rs. 1,122.50) for doing Conservation Agriculture
practices ignoring opportunity cost of labours, bullock labour cost
and mulching materials cost.

Existing practices followed by

the farmers:

Rating scale:

Soil disturbance while farming

Amount and type of mulching

Intercropping/ cover crop

Soil erosion in traditional practices

Soil compaction in case of CA and traditional

Destruction of biological life in traditional practices

Approach of the organization

Sowing practice i.e. sowing done before mulching or other

such practices

A very few of the farmers were following the techniques of CA


Other farmers who are not following properly should be trained

and guided properly by the organization staff

Farmers not clear about the objectives of conservation agriculture

Need constant guidance to follow the principles of CA

Farmers perception: only mulching required in CA

Most of the existing farmers lethargic, least cared in this current


Reasons of farmers dropout from

Khalwa cluster

No adequate irrigation was available, water runoff due

to undulating land surface

Crops were destroyed and consumed by wild animals

from the forest, the field being adjacent to the forest,
deer, wild boars, moles, monkeys destroyed the crop

Selection of experimental plot adjacent to the forest was


Selection of experimental crop like gram/chickpea was

also wrong

Less interest from farmers side


Farmers plot adjacent to the forest

Reviews of farmers of both the


Most of the farmers have noticed the changes between CA

and traditional techniques of farming

Less irrigation was required in rabi crops

Soil in case of CA was able to retain more moisture than

traditional soil

Revival of biological life i.e. earthworms


Initial lack of knowledge

No blueprint available for conservation agriculture, as all agroecosystems are different

Farmers from korku tribe and have a primitive mindset over

traditional farming

Number of cattle in farmers house

Farmers fear snakes and other harmful insects and animals that
make shelter below the mulching

Farmers need immediate results of any new technique introduced

to them


Farmers can have a field visit among themselves so that they

can observe the differences of the plots and from there they can
learn about their faults if any

Farmers can be shown videos related to Conservation

Agriculture of different places to motivate them

Regularly motivate the farmers regarding the various advantages

of this model of farming to change their mindset over the years

Need farmers who are exceptional in their performance so that

they can take a pioneer leadership in spreading awareness of
sustainable agricultural practices among the other farmers

Continue experimentation on the farmers plot with his

involvement so that he could learn from it

Thank You..