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General Psychology: GuangDong University of Foreign Studies

Chapter 3

Chapter 3
Human Development

General Psychology: GuangDong University of Foreign Studies


Chapter 3

Heredity and Genes


Developmental Psychology: The study of progressive
changes in behavior and abilities
Heredity (Nature): Transmission of physical and
psychological characteristics from parents to their
children through genes
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecular structure,
shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic
information
Genes: Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry
hereditary information
Dominant: The genes feature will appear each time the gene is
present
Recessive: The genes feature will appear only if it is paired with
another recessive gene

Figure 3.2

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.2 (Top left) Linked molecules (organic bases) make up the rungs on DNAs twisted molecular
ladder. The order of these molecules serves as a code for genetic information. The code provides a
genetic blueprint that is unique for each individual (except identical twins). The drawing shows only a small
section of a DNA strand. An entire strand of DNA is composed of billions of smaller molecules. (Bottom
left) The nucleus of each cell in the body contains chromosomes made up of tightly wound coils of DNA.
(Dont be misled by the drawing: Chromosomes are microscopic in size, and the chemical molecules that
make up DNA are even smaller.)

Figure 3.3

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.3Genepatternsforchildrenofbrowneyedparents,whereeachparenthasone

browneyegeneandoneblueeyegene.Becausethebrowneyegeneisdominant,onechildin
fourwillbeblueeyed.Thus,thereisasignificantchancethattwobrowneyedparentswill
haveablueeyedchild.

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Chapter 3

Temperament and Environment


Temperament: The physical core of personality
Easy Children: 40%; relaxed and agreeable
Difficult Children: 10%; moody, intense, easily
angered
Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: 15%; restrained,
unexpressive, shy
Remaining Children: Do not fit into any specific
category

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Chapter 3

Environment
Environment (Nurture): All external conditions that
affect development
Sensitive Periods: A period of increased sensitivity to
environmental influences; also, a time when certain
events must occur for normal development to take place
Congenital Problem: A problem or defect that occurs
during prenatal development; birth defect; becomes
apparent at birth

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Chapter 3

Environment (cont'd)
Genetic Disorder: Problem caused by inherited
characteristics
Anything capable of causing birth defects (e.g.,
narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine)
Deprivation: Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition,
comfort, or love
Enrichment: When an environment is deliberately made
more complex and intellectually stimulating
Enriched Environments: Environments deliberately made
more novel, complex, and stimulating

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Chapter 3

The Mozart Effect: Real or Rubbish?


Rauscher & Shaw (1998) claimed that after college
students listened to Mozart they scored higher on a
spatial reasoning test
Original experiment done with adults; tells us nothing
about infants
What effect would listening to other styles of music
have?
Most researchers unable to duplicate the effect
Conclusion: Those who listened to Mozart were just
more alert or in a better mood

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Chapter 3

Newborns (Neonates) and Their Reflexes


Grasping Reflex: If an object is placed in the infants
palm, shell grasp it automatically (all reflexes are
automatic responses; i.e., they come from nature, not
nurture).
Rooting Reflex: Lightly touch the infants cheek and hell
turn toward the object and attempt to nurse; helps infant
find bottle or breast.
Sucking Reflex: Touch an object or nipple to the infants
mouth and shell make rhythmic sucking movements.
Moro Reflex: If a babys position is abruptly changed or if
he is startled by a loud noise, he will make a hugging
motion.

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Chapter 3

Maturation
Physical growth and development of the body, brain, and
nervous system
Increased muscular control occurs in patterns
Cephalocaudal: From head to toe
Proximodistal: From center of the body to the
extremities

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Chapter 3

Emotional and Social Development


Social Smile: Smiling elicited by social stimuli; not
exclusive to seeing parents
Invites parents to care for them

Figure 3.6

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FIGURE 3.6 Motor development. Most infants follow an orderly pattern of motor development.
Although the order in which children progress is similar, there are large individual differences in
the ages at which each ability appears. The ages listed are averages for American children. It is
not unusual for many of the skills to appear 1 or 2 months earlier than average or several months
later (Frankenberg & Dodds, 1967; Harris & Liebert, 1991). Parents should not be alarmed if a
childs behavior differs some from the average.

Figure 3.8

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.8 The traditional view of infancy holds that emotions are rapidly differentiated from an
initial capacity for excitement.

Figure 3.9

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FIGURE 3.9 Infants display many of the same emotional expressions as adults do. Carroll Izard
believes such expressions show that distinct emotions appear within the first months of life. Other
theorists argue that specific emotions come into focus more gradually, as an infants nervous
system matures. Either way, parents can expect to see a full range of basic emotions by the end of
a babys first year.

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Chapter 3

Mary Ainsworth and Attachment


Separation Anxiety: Crying and signs of fear when a child
is left alone or is with a stranger; generally appears
around 8-12 months
Quality of Attachment (Ainsworth)
Secure: Stable and positive emotional bond; upset by
mothers absence
Insecure-Avoidant: Tendency to avoid reunion with
parent or caregiver
Insecure-Ambivalent: Desire to be with parent or
caregiver and some resistance to being reunited with
Mom

Figure 3.10

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FIGURE 3.10 In the United States, about two thirds of all children from middle-class families are
securely attached. About one child in three is insecurely attached. (Percentages are approximate.
From Kaplan, 1998.)

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Chapter 3

Play and Social Skills


Solitary Play: When a child plays alone even when with
other children
Cooperative Play: When two or more children must
coordinate their actions

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Chapter 3

Optimal Caregiving
Maternal Influences: All the effects a mother has on her
child
Goodness of Fit (Chess & Thomas): Degree to which
parents and child have compatible temperaments
Paternal Influences: Sum of all effects a father has on
his child

Figure 3.11

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FIGURE 3.11 This graph shows the results of a study of child care in homes other than the
childs. In most cases, parents paid for this care, although many of the caregivers were
unlicensed. As you can see, child care was good in only 9 percent of the homes. In 35 percent
of the homes, it was rated as inadequate

Figure 3.12

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.12 Mother-infant and father-infant interactions. These graphs show what occurred on
routine days in a sample of 72 American homes. The graph on the left records the total amount of
contact parents had with their babies, including such actions as talking to, touching, hugging, or
smiling at the infant. The graph on the right shows the amount of caregiving (diapering, washing,
feeding, and so forth) done by each parent. Note that in both cases mother-infant interactions
greatly exceed father-infant interactions.

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Chapter 3

Parenting Styles (Baumrind, 1991)


Authoritarian Parents: Enforce rigid rules and demand
strict obedience to authority. Children are obedient and
self-controlled.
Overly Permissive: Give little guidance. Allow too much
freedom, or dont hold children accountable for their
actions. Children tend to be dependent and immature
and frequently misbehave.
Authoritative: Provide firm and consistent guidance
combined with love and affection. Children tend to be
competent, self-controlled, independent, and assertive.

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Chapter 3

Types of Child Discipline


Power Assertion: Using physical punishment or a show
of force
Withdrawal of Love: Withholding affection; refusing to
speak to a child or threatening to leave
Management Techniques: Combine praise, recognition,
approval, rules, and reasoning to encourage desirable
behavior

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Chapter 3

Language Acquisition
Cooing: Repetition of vowel sounds by infants (like oo
and ah); starts at about 8 weeks
Babbling: Repetition of meaningless language sounds
(e.g., babababa); starts at about 7 months
Single-Word Stage: The child says one word at a time
Telegraphic Speech: Two word sentences that
communicate a single idea (e.g., Want yogurt)

Figure 3.13

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.13 Infant engagement scale. These samples from a 90-point scale show various
levels of infant engagement, or attention. Babies participate in prelanguage conversations with
parents by giving and withholding attention and by smiling, gazing, or vocalizing.

Figure 3.14

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.14 This graph shows the development of turn-taking in games played by an infant and
his mother. For several months, Richard responded to games such as peek-a-boo and hand-thetoy-back only when his mother initiated action. At about 9 months, however, he rapidly began to
initiate action in the games. Soon, he was the one to take the lead about half the time. Learning
to take turns and to direct actions toward another person underlie basic language skills.

General Psychology: GuangDong University of Foreign Studies


Chapter 3

Noam Chomsky and the Roots of Language


Biological Disposition: Presumed readiness of ALL
humans to learn certain skills such as how to use
language
Chomsky: Language patterns are inborn
Parentese (Motherese): Pattern of speech used when
talking to infants
Marked by raised voice; short, simple sentences and
repetition

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Chapter 3

Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development


Piaget believed that all children passed through a set
series of stages during their intellectual development;
like Freud, he was a Stage Theorist.
Transformations: Mentally changing the shape or form
of a substance; children younger than 6 or 7 cannot do
this.
Assimilation: Application of existing mental patterns to
new situations.
Accommodation: Existing ideas are changed to
accommodate new information or experiences.

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Chapter 3

Jean Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage


Sensorimotor (0-2 Years): All sensory input and motor
responses are coordinated; most intellectual
development here is nonverbal.
Object Permanence: Concept that objects still exist
when they are out of sight.

Figure 3.16

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.16 The panels on the left show a possible event, in which an infant watches as a
toy is placed behind the right of two screens. After a delay of 70 seconds, the toy is brought
into view from behind the right screen. In the two panels on the right, an impossible event
occurs. The toy is placed behind the left screen and retrieved from behind the right. (A
duplicate toy was hidden there before testing.) Eight-month-old infants react with surprise
when they see the impossible event staged for them. Their reaction implies that they
remember where the toy was hidden. Infants appear to have a capacity for memory and
thinking that greatly exceeds what Piaget claimed is possible during the sensorimotor period.

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Chapter 3

Jean Piaget: Preoperational Stage


Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years): Children begin to use
language and think symbolically, BUT their thinking is still
intuitive and egocentric.
Intuitive: Makes little use of reasoning and logic.
Egocentric Thought: Thought that is unable to
accommodate viewpoints of others.

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Chapter 3

Jean Piaget: Concrete Operational Stage


Concrete Operational Stage (7-11Years): Children
become able to use concepts of time, space, volume,
and number BUT in ways that remain simplified and
concrete, not abstract.
Conservation: Mass, weight, and volume remain
unchanged when the shape or appearance of objects
changes.
Reversibility of Thought: Relationships involving
equality or identity can be reversed.

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Chapter 3

Jean Piaget: Formal Operations


Formal Operations Stage (11 Years and Up): Thinking
now includes abstract, theoretical, and hypothetical
ideas.
Abstract Ideas: Concepts and examples removed
from specific examples and concrete situations.
Hypothetical Possibilities: Suppositions, guesses, or
projections.

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Chapter 3

Lev Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory


Childrens cognitive development is heavily influenced by
social and cultural factors.
A childs thinking develops through dialogues with more
capable persons
Zone of Proximal Development: Range of tasks a child
cannot master alone even though they are close to
having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance
from a more capable partner in order to complete the
task.
Scaffolding: Adjusting instruction so it is responsive to a
beginners behavior and so it supports the beginners
efforts to understand a problem or gain a mental skill

General Psychology: GuangDong University of Foreign Studies

Lawrence Kohlberg and


Stages of Moral Development

Chapter 3

Moral Development: When we acquire values, beliefs,


and thinking abilities that guide responsible behavior
Three Levels
Preconventional: Moral thinking guided by
consequences of actions (punishment, reward,
exchange of favors)
Conventional: Reasoning based on a desire to please
others or to follow accepted rules and values
Postconventional: Follows self-accepted moral
principles
Stage theorist, like Freud and Erikson

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Chapter 3

Erik Eriksons Eight Stages of Psychosocial


Dilemmas

Stage One: Trust versus Mistrust (Birth-1): Children are


completely dependent on others
Trust: Established when babies given adequate
warmth, touching, love, and physical care
Mistrust: Caused by inadequate or unpredictable care
and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents
Stage Two: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1-3)
Autonomy: Doing things for themselves
Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause
children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about
their actions

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Chapter 3

Erik Eriksons Eight Stages of Psychosocial


Dilemmas (cont'd)
Stage Three: Initiative versus Guilt (3-5)
Initiative: Parents reinforce via giving children
freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions
Guilt: May occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or
discourage a childs questions
Stage Four: Industry versus Inferiority (6-12)
Industry: Occurs when child is praised for productive
activities
Inferiority: Occurs if childs efforts are regarded as
messy or inadequate

Figure 3.17

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Chapter 3

FIGURE 3.17 Dramatic differences in physical size and maturity are found in adolescents of the
same age. The girls pictured are all 13, the boys 16. Maturation that occurs earlier or later than
average can affect the search for identity.

General Psychology: GuangDong University of Foreign Studies

Erik Eriksons Eight Stages of


Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont'd)

Chapter 3

Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity versus Role


Confusion
Identity: For adolescents; problems answering, Who
am I?
Role Confusion: Occurs when adolescents are unsure
of where they are going and who they are
Stage Six (Young adulthood): Intimacy versus Isolation
Intimacy: Ability to care about others and to share
experiences with them
Isolation: Feeling alone and uncared for in life

General Psychology: GuangDong University of Foreign Studies

Erik Eriksons Eight Stages of


Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont'd)

Chapter 3

Stage Seven (Middle adulthood): Generativity versus


Stagnation
Generativity: Interest in guiding the next generation
Stagnation: When one is only concerned with ones
own needs and comforts
Stage Eight (Late adulthood): Integrity versus Despair
Integrity: Self-respect; developed when people have
lived richly and responsibly
Despair: Occurs when previous life events are viewed
with regret; experiences heartache and remorse

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Chapter 3

Effective Parenting
Have stable rules of conduct (consistency)
Show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and shared
enjoyment
Have effective communication
I-Message: Tells children the effect their behavior had
on you (Use this)
You-Message: Threats, name-calling, accusing,
bossing, criticizing, or lecturing (Avoid this)

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Chapter 3

Consequences
Natural Consequences: Effects that naturally follow a
particular behavior; intrinsic effects
Logical Consequences: Rational and reasonable effects