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YASREF

BENZENE AWARENESS
PREPARED BY: YASREF SAFETY TEAM

Benzene
Learning Objective?

What is Benzene?
What are its Properties ?
Where it might be found generally and at Yasref Facilities?
Who might be exposed?
Hazards of benzene
Potential Health effects
Exposure limits
Control Measure (How to protect yourself from benzene)
Health Monitoring and Surveillance
Air Monitoring
WISHA rules on benzene

Benzene
Benzene is organic chemical compound which is a
colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell.
Chemical formula C6H6
Other name Benzol or Benzole (In Europe), Coal
Naphtha, Phene, Phenyl Hydride, Pyrobenzol.
It is a component of gasoline. It is an important industrial
solvent and precursor in the production of drugs, plastics,
gasoline, synthetic rubber, and dyes.
Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil, but it is
usually synthesized from other compounds present in
petroleum.
Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, and the second [n]annulene ([6]-annulene).

Benzene - Properties
Physical and Chemical
o Systematic name Benzene
o Molecular shape Planar
o Dipole moment 0 D
o Molar mass 78.11 g/mol
o Appearance Colorless liquid
o CAS number [71-43-2]
o Density and phase 0.8786 g/cm
o Solubility in water 1.79 g/l (25 C)
o Melting point 5.5 C (278.6 K)
o Boiling point 80.1 C (353.2 K)
o Viscosity 0.652 cP at 20 C
o Burns with sooty flame.

Benzene Occurrence (General)


In Gasoline
Oil refineries
Chemical Plants

Benzene Occurrence (Yasref)

Benzene Extraction Unit 119 Area 1


Gasoline Block

Continuous Catalytic Reformate CCR


Unit 118 Area 1 Gasoline Block

BEU Feed Tank East Tank Farm

Benzene Tanks 143 D-0042/0041


West Tank Farm

Benzene Export Storage Tank 172-D0009

Berth 72 and 71 NGL

Benzene Occurrence (Yasref)

Benzene Extraction Unit 119


Area 1 Gasoline Block

Benzene Who Might be Exposed


Yasref Operation, Maintenance, Base
Crew, Sankyu Support staff (Other
Contractors/subcontractors of
following units:
o

BEU

CCR

Tankfarm

Waste Water Treatment

Laboratory

NGL-Berth 71 &72

Benzene - Hazards
A. Fire, Explosion & Reactivity
.Fire
o. Flash Point (closed cup): - 11 deg. C (12 deg. F)
o. Autoignition Temperature: 580 deg. C (1076 deg.
F)
o. Flammable limits in Air. % by Volume: Lower:
1.3%, Upper: 7.5%
o. Extinguishing Media: Carbon dioxide, dry
chemical, or foam.

.R-phrases R45, R46, R11, R36/38,


R48/23/24/25, R65
.S-phrases S53, S45

Benzene - Hazards
Explosion
o A concentration exceeding 3,250 ppm is considered a potential fire
explosion hazard

Benzene - Hazards
Reactivity/Stability
o Chemical Stability: Normally stable.
o Conditions to Avoid: Open flames, sparks, static discharge, heat
and other ignition sources.
o Incompatible Materials: Reacts explosively with: halogens (e.g.
chlorine). Increased risk of fire and explosion on contact with: nitric
acid, oxidizing agents (e.g. peroxides).
o Corrosive : non corrosive o carbon steel, aluminum alloys.
o Hazardous Decomposition Products: Very toxic carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide; very toxic, flammable aldehydes; and
other chemicals.
o Possibility of Hazardous Reactions: None known.

Benzene - Hazards
B. Toxicity
VERY TOXIC

Prolonged or repeated exposure causes


damage to blood, immune system.

CANCER
HAZARD

Causes cancer - Leukemia if exposed


for a long time, even at very low
levels.

MUTAGEN

Causes Genetic defects

ASPIRATION
Hazard

Fatal if swallowed and enters airways

IRRITANT

Causes moderate or severe eye and


skin irritation.

Benzene Potential Health Effects


Route of Entry
o Inhalation It is liquid at room

temperature but easily evaporates in air.

o Skin Contact
o Skin Absorption
o Eye Contact

Benzene Potential Health Effects


Effects of short-Term (Acute )
Exposure
Inhalation:
Can irritate the nose and throat. Can harm the nervous system.
Symptoms:
May include headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and
confusion. A severe exposure can cause unconsciousness.

Skin Contact:

SKIN IRRITANT. Causes moderate to severe irritation.


Symptoms:
Include pain, redness, and swelling.
Note: During any skin contact, significant inhalation exposure will
occur.

Benzene Potential Health Effects


Eye Contact
Causes moderate to severe irritation.
Symptoms
Include sore, red eyes, and tearing. The vapor also irritates the
eyes.
Aspiration Hazard
May be drawn into the lungs if swallowed or vomited, causing
severe lung damage. Death can result.

Benzene Exposure Limits


Eye Contact
Causes moderate to severe irritation.
Symptoms
Include sore, red eyes, and tearing. The vapor also irritates the
eyes.
Aspiration Hazard
May be drawn into the lungs if swallowed or vomited, causing
severe lung damage. Death can result.

Benzene Potential Health Effects


Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:
o Can cause dry, red, cracked skin (dermatitis) following skin contact.
o Can harm the blood. Can cause a decrease in the number or size of
red blood cells (anemia).
o Can cause a decrease in white blood cells and platelets, and harm
the immune system. Blood tests may show abnormal results.
o May harm the nervous system.
o Carcinogenicity (CARCINOGEN) Can cause cancer of the blood or
blood system.
o Has been associated with other types of cancer.
o Mutagenicity (MUTAGEN) May cause genetic damage. Exposure of
the parent may cause effects in children.

Benzene Exposure Limits


Benzene - 71-43-2
ACGIH TLV - TWA

0.5 PPM (Skin A1


BEI)

TWA 8 hrs.

ACGIH TLV - STEL

2.5 PPM

STEL 15 minutes

PEL-OSHA

1 PPM

TWA- 8 hrs.

STEL-OSHA

5 PPM

STEL 15 minutes

Exposure Guideline Comments:


TLV = Threshold Limit Value.
TWA = Time-Weighted Average.
A1 = Confirmed human carcinogen.
BEI = Biological Exposure Index.
STEL = Short-term Exposure Limit.
C = Ceiling limit.

Benzene Control Measure


Engineering Control
o Use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent
product release into the workplace.
o Use backup controls (e.g. double mechanical pump seals) to prevent
the release of this material due to equipment failure.
o Use non-sparking ventilation systems,
o Use approved explosion-proof equipment and intrinsically safe
electrical systems in areas where this product is used and stored
Administrative Control
o
o
o
o
o

Regulated Area classification & Demarcation


Restricted access
Job rotation
Time limits
Hazard Communication

Benzene Control Measure


Personal Protective Equipment's
o Eye/Face Protection - Wear chemical safety goggles and
face shield when contact is possible.
o Skin Protection - Wear chemical protective clothing e.g.
gloves, aprons, boots of Suitable materials.
o Respiratory Protection Respiratory protection equipment's
will be provided and its use will be ensured in the following
circumstances:

During installation or implementation of Engineering controls


Where engineering or administrative controls are not feasible
In Emergency situations
In those area/circumstances where temporary /activities or
conditions results in
Airborne Benzene level is unknown
OR it is above the Yasref/OSHA permissible level (PEL)

Warning Signs
Warning signs are posted at the entrance
to any area where the levels of benzene
exceed the OSHA permissible limits.
All containers containing benzene also
have a warning label.

Worksite Exposure Control


Areas
Benzene Extraction Unit
119
119 C-0003 Recovery Column
119 C-0500 Benzene Column
119 D-0004 Solvent Regenerator
119 D-0005 Recovery Column Receiver
119 D-0500 Clay Treater Charge Tank
119 D-0501/0502 Clay Treater
119 D-0503 Benzene Column Receiver
119 E-0007 Stripper Reboiler
119 E-0010 Recovery Column Reboiler

Air Monitoring

We do regular air monitoring of


benzene in the air.
Air monitoring is done in the
breathing zone by attaching air
sampling devices to employees
exposed to benzene.

Worksite Exposure Control


Areas
Benzene Extraction Unit
119
119 E-0013/0014 Recovery Column Condenser

119 E-0500/0501 Clay Treater Charge Exchanger


119 E-0503 Benzene Column Reboiler
119 E-0504 Benzene Column Bottoms Cooler
119 E-0505/0507 Benzene Products Cooler
119 E-0506 Benzene Column Condenser
119 G- 0500A/B, 0501A/B, 0502A/B,0503A/B

How to Protect Yourself


Wear respirators assigned to
you,
Wear gloves and goggles if
working with liquid benzene or
liquid solvents containing
benzene,
Wash your hands before eating,
drinking or smoking or using
the bathroom.

How to Protect Yourself


To prevent inhaling benzene,
make sure your respirator fits
properly before entering an area
where benzene vapors exist.
If you think your respirator is
leaking, leave the area
immediately and have it re-fitted,
repaired or replaced.
If you know or believe you have
inhaled benzene, let your
supervisor know immediately.

How to Protect Yourself


In the case of large spill or release of
benzene:
Leave the area immediately,
Do not attempt to clean up the
spill,
Notify your supervisor.

Required work practices


in YASREF

Operation Standard Operating


Procedure (SOP)
Line Break (Gas Release Permit)
Hazard Identification and Risk
Assessment
Gas Testing/ Air Monitoring
Confined Space Entry Procedure
Training
Lock-Out Tag-Out and Try Procedure
Interface Management Procedure
Health Surveillance
Personal Protective Equipment

Line Break Procedure

A Hazard Review Must be Completed for All


Line/Equipment Hazards Including:
HAZARDOUS

MATERIALS IN

SYSTEM
POTENTIAL PHYSICAL HAZARDS
BARRICADING AS REQUIRED
FIRST AID IF EXPOSED
LOCATION OF SAFETY EQUIPMENT
PPE REQUIRED FOR LINE BREAK

Type of Respirators for


Benzene
In jobs involving exposure
to benzene, you may need
a respirator.
The type of respirator
worn depends on the
amount of benzene in the
air.
We will give you the
proper type of respirator
and provide respirator
program training .

Using Respirators
Respirators must be worn at
all times when the amount
of benzene in the air is
above the permissible limit.
Respirators must fit properly
to prevent leaks.
You must have a medical
evaluation before you wear
a respirator.

Respirators Must Fit


Properly
You must have a
respirator fit-test
before you wear a
respirator.
You cant have a beard
or other facial hair
when wearing a tightfitting respirator.
We will train you on
how to use your
respirator.

Respirators required at
this worksite

Below 0.5 ppm benzene: No respirator required


0.5 - 5 ppm benzene: Half-mask air
purifying respirator with organic vapor
cartridges.
5.1 - 25 ppm benzene: Full face respirator
with organic vapor cartridges. (For short
term jobs, -1 hour). For longer jobs at
these higher exposures a PAPR may
be
needed. Contact IH for evaluation or use
supplied air.
25.1 ppm or greater: Supplied air
respirator in positive pressure mode.

Medical Monitoring
What medical monitoring is needed?
A medical exam is made available
to you if you are exposed to
benzene above 0.5 ppm 30 days or
more per year, or above 1 ppm
more than 10 days per year.
The medical exam includes a
complete physical exam and blood
tests.
The medical exam is made
available to you before you start
working around benzene and yearly
Link to contents of medical evaluati
after that.
on

Temporary Medical Removal


If abnormalities show up in the
blood tests, the doctor may
ask for additional tests and
temporary removal from your
current job.
In that case, we will find other
work for you in an area where
you are not exposed to
benzene.
You do not lose any earnings,
seniority or benefits during the

Permanent Medical Removal


Permanent medical removal may
be required because of the
potential serious health effects
of benzene.
Depending on your medical
condition, you may not be able
to return to your original
position.
If the doctor recommends
permanent job removal, we will
seek a job transfer for you.

Worksite Medical Surveillance Program

[Describe details of your worksite specific medical


surveillance program here.]

Records
Medical and Air Monitoring Records
You have the right to
see any of your medical
records related to
benzene.
You also have the right
to see results of any air
sampling for benzene
we have done.

Benzene Regulations
The OSHA benzene
regulations contains
much more information in
detail.
A copy of this standard is
available.