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First Principle Design

Design by First Principle

E = Mc2

HED 1
First Principle Design
 First Principle Design is a collective term for Theories, Principles
& Methods Studied in Engineering Subjects like Strength of
Materials, Machine Design.

 At the heart of Mechanical Engineering Design

 Importance / Relevance of Subject

 Basic requirements for any mechanical design


 Engineering Sciences
 Mathematics
 Material Sciences

HED 2
First Principle Design
 Stress terms
 Tensile Stress

 Compressive Stress

 Shear Stress

 Temperature Stress

HED 3
First Principle Design
 Strength terms

 Yield Strength

 Tensile Strength

 Compressive Strength

 Fatigue Strength ( Endurance Limit)

 Impact Strength
HED 4
First Principle Design
 Strain Terms

 Deformation

 Strain
 Normal Strain
 Shear Strain

 Deflection

HED 5
First Principle Design
Stress-Strain Relations

 Modulus of Elasticity

 Modulus of Rigidity

 Plasticity

HED 6
First Principle Design
Other Terms
 Poisson's Ratio

 Toughness

 Fatigue

 Factor of Safety

HED 7
First Principle Design
 Simple Bending Theory

 Simple Torsion Theory

 Thin Cylinder under Internal Pressure

 Principal Stress & Mohr’s Circle

HED 8
First Principle Design
 Theories of Failure
 Maximum Principal Stress ( Rankine)

 Maximum Shear Stress ( Tresca)

 Maximum Principal Strain ( Saint-Venant)

 Total Strain Energy / Volume

 Distortion Energy ( Von Mises)

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First Principle Design

HED 10
First Principle Design
 First Principal Vs FEA
 Simplification Vs Discrete

 Maximum / local Vs Global / All-over

 Experimentation Vs Validation

 Easily understood Vs Experts choice

 Accuracy ??

HED 11
First Principle Design
Why FEA ??

HED 12
First Principle Design
Reserve Propulsion Shaft line

HED 13
First Principle Design
Tapper Fitment for Propeller

HED 14
First Principle Design
Tapper Fitment for Half Coupling
Radial(X-) interference
(=0.0418mm) applied on
taper face

Back face constrained in


axial (Z-) direction

Taper face constrained in


tangential (Y-) direction

D3 do D2 di

HED 15
First Principle Design
Data for half coupling tapper fitment
Torque transmitted, TD = 7000 N-m

Safety factor on slippage = 2.8

Tapper Length, L = 150 mm


D3 do D2 di

Tapper angle, α = Rad


0.0334

Large diameter of tapper (do) = 109 mm


L

Material BS : 817M40 Small diameter of tapper (di) = 99 mm


Yield Strength, σ y = 650 Mpa
Youngs modulus, E = 2.07 x105 Mpa
Hub Diameter (D3) = 160 mm
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3
HED 16
First Principle Design
d0 + di
Mean diameter of taper, mm D2 = = 104
2
2
 do di 
Surface area of taper, mm2 A = πD2  −  + L = 49036.1
2

 2 2
TD
Tangential force on taper area, KN FT = = 376.92
D2
2
Assuming a coefficient of friction, µ = 0.16
FT
Normal force on the taper area, N FN = = 2.356 × 10 6
µ
FN
Pressure on the taper area, Mpa P= = 48.04
A
For shaft and disc of same material, the diametrical interference required for achieving the
above determined pressure is given by, mm
  
( 1 − ν ) +  D32 + D22 + ν  = 0.0836
2 2
PD2
δ int =
Radial interference required, mm E   D3 − D2 

Rint = 0.0418
HED 17
First Principle Design
Rint

radial interference and the axial movement of taper during fit.


Axial shift of half coupling during fit, mm

Rint
a= = 1.25
sin α

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HED 24
First Principle Design

Thank You

HED 25
First Principle Design

4686728 N
HED 26
First Principle Design
L=350

Tensile Stress

N.A
M=PxL

P =4686728 N Compressive Stress

HED 27
First Principle Design

2986531

HED 28
First Principle Design
2986531 N

HED 29
First Principle
L=350
Design
Tensile Stress

N.A

M=PxL

Compressive Stress
P =2986531 N

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