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# First Principle Design

## Design by First Principle

E = Mc2

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First Principle Design
 First Principle Design is a collective term for Theories, Principles
& Methods Studied in Engineering Subjects like Strength of
Materials, Machine Design.

##  Basic requirements for any mechanical design

 Engineering Sciences
 Mathematics
 Material Sciences

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 Stress terms
 Tensile Stress

 Compressive Stress

 Shear Stress

 Temperature Stress

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 Strength terms

 Yield Strength

 Tensile Strength

 Compressive Strength

##  Fatigue Strength ( Endurance Limit)

 Impact Strength
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 Strain Terms

 Deformation

 Strain
 Normal Strain
 Shear Strain

 Deflection

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Stress-Strain Relations

 Modulus of Elasticity

 Modulus of Rigidity

 Plasticity

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Other Terms
 Poisson's Ratio

 Toughness

 Fatigue

 Factor of Safety

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 Simple Bending Theory

##  Principal Stress & Mohr’s Circle

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First Principle Design
 Theories of Failure
 Maximum Principal Stress ( Rankine)

##  Distortion Energy ( Von Mises)

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 First Principal Vs FEA
 Simplification Vs Discrete

##  Maximum / local Vs Global / All-over

 Experimentation Vs Validation

##  Easily understood Vs Experts choice

 Accuracy ??

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Why FEA ??

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First Principle Design
Reserve Propulsion Shaft line

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First Principle Design
Tapper Fitment for Propeller

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First Principle Design
Tapper Fitment for Half Coupling
(=0.0418mm) applied on
taper face

## Back face constrained in

axial (Z-) direction

## Taper face constrained in

tangential (Y-) direction

D3 do D2 di

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First Principle Design
Data for half coupling tapper fitment
Torque transmitted, TD = 7000 N-m

D3 do D2 di

0.0334

L

## Material BS : 817M40 Small diameter of tapper (di) = 99 mm

Yield Strength, σ y = 650 Mpa
Youngs modulus, E = 2.07 x105 Mpa
Hub Diameter (D3) = 160 mm
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3
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First Principle Design
d0 + di
Mean diameter of taper, mm D2 = = 104
2
2
 do di 
Surface area of taper, mm2 A = πD2  −  + L = 49036.1
2

 2 2
TD
Tangential force on taper area, KN FT = = 376.92
D2
2
Assuming a coefficient of friction, µ = 0.16
FT
Normal force on the taper area, N FN = = 2.356 × 10 6
µ
FN
Pressure on the taper area, Mpa P= = 48.04
A
For shaft and disc of same material, the diametrical interference required for achieving the
above determined pressure is given by, mm
  
( 1 − ν ) +  D32 + D22 + ν  = 0.0836
2 2
PD2
δ int =
Radial interference required, mm E   D3 − D2 

Rint = 0.0418
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First Principle Design
Rint

## radial interference and the axial movement of taper during fit.

Axial shift of half coupling during fit, mm

Rint
a= = 1.25
sin α

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Thank You

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First Principle Design

4686728 N
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First Principle Design
L=350

Tensile Stress

N.A
M=PxL

## P =4686728 N Compressive Stress

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First Principle Design

2986531

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2986531 N

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First Principle
L=350
Design
Tensile Stress

N.A

M=PxL

Compressive Stress
P =2986531 N

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