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Bluetooth Technology

• Name- Bittu Kumar


• Roll No.- A05
• Section- E2801
• Reg. No.- 10808479
• Course code-CSE 001D

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An Introduction to

BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
What is Bluetooth?

• “Bluetooth wireless LAN technology is an open specification


for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology
for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data
anywhere in the world.”

One of the first modules (Ericsson) A recent module

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Cordless Computer

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Overview of Bluetooth History
• What is Bluetooth?
— Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology.

• Why this name?
— It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand
who unified Denmark and Norway.

• When does it appear?
— 1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile
phones & accessories.
— 5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group
(SIG) in 1998.
— First specification released in July 1999.

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Technical features
Connection Type Spread Spectrum (Frequency Hopping) &
Time Division Duplex (1600 hops/sec)
Spectrum 2.4 GHz ISM Open Band (79 MHz of
spectrum = 79 channels)
Modulation Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying
Transmission Power 1 mw – 100 mw
Data Rate 1 Mbps
Range 30 ft
Supported Stations 8 devices
Data Security –Authentication Key 128 bit key
Data Security –Encryption Key 8-128 bits (configurable)
Module size 9 x 9 mm

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Classification

•Classification of devices on the basis of Power dissipated &


corresponding maximum Range.

POWER RANGE

CLASS I 20 dBm 100 m


CLASS II 0-4 dBm 10 m
CLASS III 0 dBm 1m

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Architecture of Bluetooth

• Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and


point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in
a piconet.
• Point to Point Link P s
— Primary – secondary relationship
— Bluetooth devices can function as Primary or secondary
• Piconet
— It is the network formed by a Primary and one or more
secondary (max 7)
P
— Each piconet is defined by a different hopping channel
to which users synchronize to
— Each piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps)
s s s

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Piconet Structure

Primary

Active Slave

Parked Slave

Standby

• All devices in piconet hop together.


• Master’s ID and Primary’s clock determines frequency hopping
sequence & phase.

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Ad-hoc Network – the Scatternet

• Inter-piconet communication
• Up to 10 piconets in a
scatternet
• Multiple piconets can operate
within same physical space
• This is an ad-hoc, peer to
peer (P2P) network

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Bluetooth layer

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Radio Layer

• Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread


spectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it
on up to 79 frequencies.
• Reduce interference with other devices.
• Pseudorandom hopping.
• 1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625 microseconds, it means each
device changes its modulation frequency 1600 times per second.
• Packet 1-5 time slots long.

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**Baseband layer--Physical link**
• Two type of links can be created between a primary and secondary: SCO links and
ACL links.
• SCO- A synchronous connection oriented link used when avoiding latency(delay in
data delivery) is more important than intergrity (error free delivery). In a SCO
link, a physical link is created between the primary and secondary by reserving
specific slot at regular intervals. The basic unot of connection is two slot, one for
each direction. If the pocket is damaged, it never retransmitted.
• ACL- an asynchronous connection link (ACL) is used when data intergrity is more
important than avoiding latency. In this type of link, if a payload encapsulated in
the frame is corrupted, it is retransmitted.

• FRAME FORMATE-
. Frame in baseband layer can be one of three types:- one slot, three slot , or five slot.

. A slot is 625 micro-sec, however, in one slot frame exchange, 259 micro-sec is needed

for hopping and control mechanism. This means that a one slot frame can last only
625-259 or 366 micro-sec. with a 1 MHz bandwidth and 1bit\sec, the size of a one
slot frame is 366 micro-sec.

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Frame formate
Data in piconet is encoded in packets. The general packet format is shown
below:

1. Access code- This 72-bit field normally contains synchronization bits and
the identifiers of the primary to distinguish the frame of one piconet from
another.

2. Header- this 54-bit field is a repeated 18-bit pattern. Each pattern


has following subfield.
.
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A). Address- The 3-bit address can define up to seven secondary (1 to 7). If
the address is zer0, it used for broadcast communication primary to all
secondary.
B). Type- The 4 bit-type subfield defines the type of data coming from the
upper layer.
C). F- this 1-bit subfield is for flow control.
D). A- The 1 bit field for acknowledgement.
E). S- The 1-bit subfield holds a sequence number.
G). HEC- the 8-bit header error correction subfield is a checksum to detect
error in each 18-bit header section.

The header has three identical 18-bit section. The receiver compares these
three section bit by bit. If each of the corresponding bits is the same,
the bit is accepted. If not , the majority opinion rules. This is a form of
forward error correction.
3. Payload- This subfield can be 0 to 2740 bits long. It contains data or
control information from the upper layers.

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L2CAP

• Service provided to the higher layer:


— L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data
services to upper layer protocols
— Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilities
— Segmentation & reassembly of large packets
— L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to
transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes
in length.

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Core Bluetooth Products

• Notebook PCs & Desktop •CD Player


computers
•TV/VCR/DVD
• Printers
•Access Points
• PDAs
•Telephone Answering
• Other handheld devices Devices
• Cell phones •Cordless Phones
• Wireless peripherals: •Cars
• Headsets
• Cameras

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Security

• Security Measures
— Link Level Encryption & Authentication.
— Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access.
— Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys).
— These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters
are transmitted over wireless which in combination with
certain information known to the device, can generate the
keys.
— Further encryption can be done at the application layer.

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A Comparison

WLAN

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Bluetooth vs. IrD

• Bluetooth •IrD
— Point to Multipoint —Point to point
— Data & Voice —Intended for Data
Communication
— Easier Synchronization
—Infrared, LOS
due to omni-
communication
directional and no
—Can not penetrate solid
LOS requirement objects
— Devices can be mobile —Both devices must be
— Range 10 m stationary, for synchronization
—Range 1 m

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Future of Bluetooth

• Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated into


consumer products
— Consumers are more interested in applications than the technology
— Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer products
— Must provide benefits for consumer
— Must not destroy current product benefits

• Key Success Factors


— Interoperability
— Mass Production at Low Cost
— Ease of Use
— End User Experience

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Summary

• A new global standard for data and voice


• Eliminate Cables
• Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices
• Future Improvements
— Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for
optimal resource allocation and utilization.
— Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be
implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.

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Thank You

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