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Engineering M etallurgy

Pratik Babhulkar

Im portance of M aterialScience
We come across number of materials in our
day to day life.
In various fields of engineering, one has to
select material to be used.
One needs to know the material properties like
strength, density and some special
Thus it is important for us to learn the material

Approx Classifi
cation of M aterials

Materials are
broadly classified in
these categories



Hybrids are the

materials obtained
from composition of
two or more types of
materials so that we
can incorporate best
of these materials in
this hybrid
Comparison of some
properties of these
materials is shown in
next slides

Density of various materials

Youngs Modulus comparison

Tensile Strength Comparison

M etals
Materials in this group are composed of one or
more metallic elements (e.g., iron,
aluminum, copper, titanium, gold, and nickel), and
often also nonmetallic elements
(e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in relatively
small amounts.
These are the crystalline materials in which ions
are indirectly connected through the field of free
electrons surrounding them.

Ceram ics
Ceramic is an inorganic, non metallic solid with
crystalline, partly crystalline or amorphous structure.
Ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements; they are most frequently oxides,
nitrides, and carbides.
High elastic moduli
Tensile (Fracture) strength is less than compressive
(Crushing) strength.

Polym ers
Polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating
structural units.
Many of them are organic compounds that are
chemically based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetallic elements
Low elastic moduli
Large elastic deflections

Elastom ers
Elastomers are the material which have low elastic
moduli, which show great extensibility and flexibility
when it is stressed but return to original dimensions or
almost so when deforming stress is removed.
They are a type of polymer. They are amorphous in
Youngs moduli are too low

M etallic foam
(Advanced m aterial)
o Ametal foamis a cellular structure
consisting of a solidmetal,
frequentlyaluminium, as well as a large
volume fraction of gas-filledpores.
o The pores can be sealed (closedcellfoam), or they can form an
interconnected network (open-cell foam).
Can be used in aerospace applications,
prosthetics, design, architecture.

H ierarchy of m etallurgicallength scales

D im ensionalRange-Scientifi
c and
engineering disciplines


Stress vs Strain
The graph shown aside shows
stress strain behaviour of a
typical material
The linear part upto A is the
elastic region where the material
obeys the hookes law. A is the
proportional limit.
After A the non-linear
deformation starts. i.e. Plastic
deformation starts. The process
just after elastic region is called
Then stress necessary to
continue plastic deformation
increases and eventually reaches
its maximum called Ultimate

A standard tensile specimen with circular

cross section

All the deformation until

ultimate stress is uniform
throughout the tensile test
At the ultimate stress a
small neck (constriction)
Further deformation gets
confined to the neck area
and eventually the sample
The fracture strength
corresponds to the stress
during the fracture.

True stress-strain vs engineering stressstrain

oAs we reach the ultimate
stress, the deformation is
confined to neck area and
thus the actual instantaneous
area (A) is decreasing rapidly.
oSo the stress associated with
the force after considering this
cross sectional area is called
oTrue Strain is instantaneous
oTrue stress and strain are
defined in next page

Engineering stress is the stress by considering

original cross sectional area of the specimen.
S- Engineering stress E-engineering strain
- True strain
-True stress
A Original area of
cross section


The upper one

shows the true
stress and lower
one is

Bonding forces and Energies

While two atoms are approaching, the net force
between them is summation of attractive and repulsive
When the forces balance each other, net force is zero
and atoms are in equilibrium at some specific interatomic distance.
Thus the atomic bond is formed. The potential energy of
this system is related to the forces as:

The dependence of force and

potential energy on inter-atomic
distance is shown by this graph.
The dotted lines show individual
attractive and repulsive energies and
The bond is formed at minimum
potential energy or zero net force.

Elastic deform ation at Atom ic scale

On an atomic scale, macroscopic
elastic strain is manifested as small
changes in the inter-atomic spacing
and the stretching of inter-atomic
The magnitude of the modulus of
elasticity is a measure of the
to separation of adjacent atoms, that
is, the inter-atomic bonding forces.
Hence ,

Strength vs Density
Specific strength=Strength/Weight

M etals
Atomic Structure (key points)
1. Metals have loosely bound valence electrons.
2. They are easily available and referred as free
. Atomic Bonding in Solid
1. The type of bond in metals is metallic bond. In metals,
valence electrons are not bound to any particular atom
in the solid and are more or less free to drift
throughout the entire metal.
2. Thus these electrons create a pool (electron cloud) of
negative charge.

The remaining non-valence electrons and atomic

nuclei form what are called ion cores, which possess a
net positive charge equal in magnitude to the total
valence electron charge per atom

The sea of electrons shields the

positive core from repulsive forces.
Again it also acts as glue by creating
a strong attractive force with positive
Those makes the metal strong.

Crystal Structure of metals

The atoms of metallic substances are closely
positioned to neighbouring atoms in one of two
common arrangements.
The first arrangement is known asbodycentred cubic. In this arrangement, each atom
is positioned at the centre of eight others.
The other is known asface-centred cubic. In
this arrangement, each atom is positioned in
the centre of six faces.

Bravaic Lattice
A crystalline material is one in which the atoms are
situated in a repeating or periodic array over large
atomic distances. There are following 7 broad ways in
which atoms are found arranged in nature.
The 7 lattice systems are :
* Cubic

* Hexagonal

* Rhombohedral

* Triclinic

* Tetragonal

* Orthorhombic

* Monoclinic

Cubic lattice




Effective no of atoms per

unit cell=1

Effective no of atoms per

unit cell=2

Effective no of atoms per

unit cell=4

Packing factor=52.4%

Packing factor=68%

Packing factor=74%

Co-ordination no=6

Co-ordination no=8

Co-ordination no=12




Effective no of atoms per

unit cell=6
Packing factor=74%
Co-ordination no=12


Tetragonal Body

O rthorhom bic C rystal



Body centred

Face centred

M onoclinic Crystal


Base centred

Engineering M etallurgy
PPT 3-5
Pratik Babhulkar

Polymorphic transformation
Stacking sequence
Effect of temperature on Youngs Modulus
(Modulus of elasticity)
Miller Indices

Polym orphic transform ations

-iron: When iron first
solidifies at 1538 C, it is in
B.C.C. (body-centred cubic)
-iron: As it is cooled, it
changes to F.C.C. (912 C
1394 C)
-iron: Then it becomes
B.C.C. (non-magnetic)
-iron: Becomes magnetic
at 768 C (Curies
Temperature for iron)
Curies Temperature:
Ferromagnetic atom
becomes paramagnetic at
this temperature
Lattice Parameter: Unit

re range
Upto 768



Lattice Crystal
paramet Structu










(Until it liqifies)




Stacking sequence
(3D )


ABAB... Packing creates the

hexagonal closed packing while
ABCABC... Packing creates Facecentred cubic packing

Radius ratio Vs Possible co-ordination no Vs Possible geometry prediction

You n g s m od u lu s d ep en d en ce on
tem p eratu re

Generally ,
modulus of a
decreases on
increasing its

Youngs modulus dependence on temperature for different materials

M iller Indices


Indexing the Points

The position of any point located within a unit

cell may be specified in terms of its coordinates as
fractional multiples of the unit cell edge lengths
(i.e., in terms of a, b,and c).
Thus, the position of P is designated
using coordinates q r s with values that are less
than or equal to unity.
Do not separate these coordinates by commas.
The example of how the point co-ordinates are
assigned is shown in next slide

The manner in
which the q, r,
and s
coordinates at
point P within
unit cell are
determined is
shown in this
The q coordinate
(which is a
corresponds to
The respective r and s coordinates forthe
the y and z
axes are determined similarly. The co-ordinates
distance qa
some special points are given in next slide
along the x axis,

The table given below

shows the fractional lengths
and point co-ordinates of
some special points in cubic
Point Number
from above

Fractional lengths
X axis



Point coordinates









Crystallographic direction
A crystallographic direction is defined as a line
between two points, or a vector.
The following steps are used to determine the three
directional indices:
1. A vector of convenient length is positioned such
that it passes through the origin of the
coordinate system. Any vector may be
translated throughout the crystal lattice without
alteration, if parallelism is maintained.
2. The length of the vector projection on each of
the three axes is determined; these are
measured in terms of the unit cell dimensions a,
b, and c.
3. These three numbers are multiplied or divided

4. The three indices, not separated by commas,

are enclosed in square brackets, thus: [u v w].
The u, v, and w integers correspond to the
reduced projections along the x, y, and z axes,
5. negative indices are also possible, which are
represented by a bar over the appropriate
6. e.g. [1 1 1] and [1 1 1] are directly opposite
This figure shows some common
directions like
edge of the unit cell [1 0 0]
Diagonal of the face [1 1 0]
Body diagonal of the unit cell [1 1

Crystallographic Planes
Crystallographic planes are specified by three Miller
indices as (hkl). The procedure used to determine the
h, k, and l index numbers is as follows:
1. If the plane passes through the selected origin,
either another parallel plane must be constructed
within the unit cell by an appropriate translation, or
a new origin must be established at the corner of
another unit cell.
2. At this point the crystallographic plane either
intersects or parallels each of the three axes; the
length of the planar intercept for each axis is
determined in terms of the lattice parameters a, b,
and c.
3. The reciprocals of these numbers are taken. A plane

4. If necessary, these three numbers are changed to

the set of smallest integers by multiplication or
division by a common factor
5. Finally, the integer indices, not separated by
commas, are enclosed within parentheses like
6. negative side of the origin is indicated by a bar or
minus sign positioned over the appropriate index
7. Reversing the digits (Sign) gives another parallel
plane on opposite side and both these planes are
equidistance from origin.
Some of the special planes are shown in next
slide. Parallel planes have same miller indices as
shown in next slide.

Som e specialplanes

Surface of the unit cell

(0 0 1)
Plane is parallel to X and Y
So intercepts are (,,1),
hence the plane is
represented by (0 0 1)

(1 1 0)
Plane is parallel to
Z axis
intercepts are
(1,1,), hence the
plane is
represented by (1 1

(1 1 1)
intercepts are
(1,1,1), hence the
plane is
represented by (1 1

Fam ily of directions

For some crystal, several non-parallel directions
with different indices are actually equivalent.
For example, in Cubic [1 0 0] , [0 1 0], [0 0 1] and
negatives of these are equivalent.
Such directions are grouped in a family.
They are represented by enclosing in triangular
<1 0 0>

Fam ily of Planes

For some crystal, several non-parallel planes with

different indices are actually equivalent. The
arrangement of atoms is same.
For example, in Cubic [1 0 0] , [0 1 0], [0 0 1] and
negatives of these are equivalent.
Such directions are grouped in a family.
They are represented by enclosing in curly brackets
{1 0 0}

Linear density in crystalstructure

Directional equivalency is related to linear
density in the sense that, for a particular
material, equivalent directions have identical
linear densities.
Linear density (LD) is defined as the number
of atoms per unit length whose centres lie on
the direction vector for a specific
Number of atoms centred on the direction
vector Length
of direction vector

Units of linear density are reciprocal length

(e.g., nm-1 , m-1)

Though here, there are three atoms centred on the

line [1 1 0], atoms X and Y are half on the line. Thus,
for linear density, we need to consider the linear
image of the system.
In other words, along this direction [1 1 0], X and Z
are shared with one more unit cell respectively. So,
there is share of X and Z in this unit cell along this
direction. Thus,

Planar density in crystalstructure

Planes having the same planar density values
are also equivalent.
Planar density (PD) is taken as the number of
per unit area that are centred on a particular
crystallographic plane
PD= Number of atoms centred on the Plane
Area of the plane
Units of planar density are nm-2 , m-2
An example is shown in next slide.

Here, we are finding planar

density for FCC for the plane
shown in figure.
It is (1 1 0).
There are 6 atoms centred on
this plane. But, all the corner
atoms lie in 3 neighbouring unit
cells and are centred on (1 1 0)
itself. Thus they are shared in 4
unit cells when we consider (1 1
Now considering the dimensions
in of
of R, length of
Hence , no
that plane is 4R while the
breadth is edge
length of the
crystal i.e. 2 sqrt(2) R.

M iller Bravais schem e for hexagonal

In hexagonal crystal lattice some
crystallographic equivalent
directions will not have the same
set of indices.
This problem is solved by using
this Co-ordinate scheme which
involves 4 co-ordinate axes.
The three a1, a2, and a3 axes are
all contained within a single plane
(called the basal plane) and are at
120 angles to one another. The z
axis is perpendicular to this basal
Directional indices are shown by 4
digits like [u v t w] where u,v,t,w
are the projections along a1, a2,
a3 and z axis respectively.

Conversion from the three-index system to

the four-index system

The conversion from 3

axes co-ordinate system to
4 index system is done
using these formula.
u,v and w represent the
three indices system while
u,v,t,w represent four
index system.
The u, v, w are given by
conventional way and then
u, v, w, t are found by
these formula.

Reduced-scale coordinate axis

system for hexagonal
A grid is constructed on the
basal plane that consists of
sets of lines parallel to each
of the a1, a2, and a3 axes.
Z-axis is also trisected at
points m and n.
This scale is referred as
reduced scale co-ordinate
While using this system, we
use a/3, c/3 instead of a and
c. (Lattice parameters).

Planes in hexagonalcrystal

The plane is represented by four indices like

These indices are determined in the similar way
by finding the intercepts along a1, a2, z-axis.
And then the reciprocal is taken.
The index i is found by summation of h and k
index as follows,

These are represented by nearest integers.

Directions and Planes in Hexagonal crystal

Perfect crystal

A perfect crystal has all

the atoms situated at
there designated place.
There are no vacancies
or other crystallographic
All the atoms are in their
minimum potential
energy state so that they
are not dislocated.
An ideally perfect crystal
is not possible in reality.

Slip in perfect lattice

We can make reasonable estimate of shear stress
required for slip in perfect lattice if we consider
that the slip occurs by the translation of one plane
of atoms over the another.
Shear stress acts in slip plane along the slip
b is the distance between atoms in one slip plane,
a is the distance between the two adjacent slip
planes and x is the distance over which the plane
has slipped.
The stress is zero when two layers are co-incident
and also when they move distance b relative to
each other. It is zero in the midway between two
atoms as well.
An approximation of this is shown in next slides.

The shear stress can be assumed to be sinusoidally

realated to the displacement. So,
m is the maximum shear stress and b is the period.
At small displacements, hookes law will apply ,

For small small x/b,

Combining these equations, the expression for the
maximum shear stress at which slip should occur is ,
Assuming b=a, shear strength of a perfect crystal is
approximately ,

Relationship between shearing stress and

displacement of the layer.

Im perfection in crystals

Point defects

Vacancy D efects
The equilibrium number of vacancies for a given
quantity of material depends on and increases
with temperature according to equation,

N is total number of atomic sites, Nv is total no

of vacancies,
Qa is the activation energy for the vacancy to be
formed, k is Boltzman constant, T is absolute
As the temperature increases, energy of the

Vacancy is the simple defect where an atom is

not present at the given place
Interstitial Impurity: In this case some foreign
atom occupies the interstitial place.
Self interstitial: In this case the same atom
dislocates and occupies the interstitial location.

Substitution impurity : In this

case, some foreign atom
occupies the lattice point.
Divacancy: In this case, the
two atoms leave their

Shottky defect: In this effect, equal number

of cations and anions are missing from their
Frenkel defect: In this effect, cation leaves
the atomic site and occupies an interstitial

D iff
usion in ionic crystals

There are four types:

Vc = no of cation vacancies
anion vacancies

VA =no of

1. Vc =VA , Schottky defect

2. No of interstitial Anions=VA , Anion Frenkel Pair
3. No of interstitial Cations= Vc , Cation Frenkel pair.
4. Interstitial Cations= Interstitial Anions , AntiSchotky defect.

Line defects
(D islocations)
A dislocation is a linear or one-dimensional
defect around which some of the atoms are
Following are the main types of dislocation


Edge dislocation
An extra portion of a
plane of atoms, or
half-plane, the edge
of which terminates
within the crystal.This
is termed an edge
It is a linear defect
that centers on the
line that is defined
along the end of the
extra half-plane of
This is sometimes

Sometimes the
edge dislocation in
diagram is
represented by the
also indicates
the position of the
dislocation line. An
edge dislocation
may also be
formed by an
extra half-plane of
atoms that is
included in the
bottom portion of
the crystal; its
designation is .

Burgers Vector
The Burgers vector of a dislocation is a
crystal vector specified by miller indices, that
quantifies the difference between the
distorted lattice around dislocation and the
perfect lattice. Equivalently, the Burgers
vector denotes the direction and magnitude of
atomic displacement that occurs when
dislocation moves.
This image gives
idea what the
burgers vector

This is how Burgers vector is defined to

give the dislocation

cation of dislocation


Edge dislocation:
extra half-plane of atoms inserted in a crystal
b the bergers vector is perpendicular to
Screw dislocation:
spiral planar ramp resulting from shear deformation
b is parallel to dislocation line
Burgers vector, b: is a measure of lattice
distortion and is
measured as a distance along the close packed
in the lattice

Relative plane motion in Edge Dislocation

under application of Shear stress

The spiral
stacking of
planes leads
to the
parallel to
line. This is

has both
edge and
with a single
with the pure
and pure

Further ways of creep mechanism are in

next slide

Plastic deformation occurs by following ways

G rain Boundary sliding

What are grains and grain boundaries?
Upon completion
of solidification,
grains having
irregular shapes
Formed. This is
how they would
orientation of
grains is different

The grain structure as it would appear under the

microscope; dark lines are the grain boundaries.
There exists some atomic mismatch within the
region where two grainsmeet; this area, called a

This figure shows

small and high angle
of misorientation .
Small angle of
results due to edge
dislocation as shown
in next slide.
This is also known as
tilt boundary

Demonstration of how a
tilt boundary having an
angle of misorientation
results from an
alignment of edge
A twin boundary is a
special type of grain
boundary across which
there is a specific
mirror lattice symmetry

G rain boundary sliding

Grain Boundary
Slidingis one of
materials which
each other
The main
mechanism of
grain boundary
sliding is the

Types of dislocation m ovem ent

Dislocation occurs
along the surface
which contains its line
and burgers vector.
This is conservative
motion. Occurs when
the dislocation
moves out of the glide
surface, and thus
normal to the Burgers

C lim b vs G lide



Gliding along the

plane having
dislocation line as
well as burgers

Glide of many dislocations results in slip, which is the most common
manifestation of plastic deformation in crystalline solids.
This is single edge dislocation moving

When large number of such dislocations move, it is slip as shown below

Motion of a plane
For edge dislocation

PN G e


We have seen that there is a critical stress required to move a dislocation.

At the fundamental level the motion of a dislocation involves the
rearrangement of bonds requires application of shear stress on the slip
When sufficient stress is applied the dislocation moves from one
metastable energy minimum to another.
Slip occurs along the plane with higher planar densities.
In above formula , G shear modulus of the crystal
w width of the dislocation
b |b|

Bubble raft m odelof dislocation

Bubble raftsdemonstrate
materials'microstructuraland atomic length-scale
behaviour by modelling the {111} plane of a
close-packed crystal.
These images give the demo of dislocations.

Q uestions

What are the indices

for the directions
by the two vectors in
this sketch?
For direction 1:
Projection along x=0
Projection along y=(1/2)b
Projection along z=c
(a,b,c are edge lengths along x,y,z axes.)
So, indices are 0 1
After multiplying by 2, the direction has indices
[0 1 2].

For direction 2: Projection along x=(1/2) a

Projection along y=(1/2)b
Projection along z= -c
(a,b,c are edge lengths along x,y,z axes.)
So direction is: [2 1 2]

Q).What is grain boundary ? Explain what is twin

grain boundary.
When the solid is formed by solidification, grains of
irregular shapes are formed.
These grains are oriented randomly in the solid. So,
their crystallographic orientation might be different.
Hence, the region between such two grains has
atomic mismatching.
Grain boundary is the region between two grains
where atomic mismatch occurs.
A twin boundary is a special type of grain boundary
across which there is a specific mirror lattice
Atoms on one side of the boundary are located at
the mirror image position of other side and vice