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Frequency Planning
&
Neighbor Cell Planning
ISSUE1.0

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Chapter 1 Basic knowledge


Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor Cell Planning

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Content of Basic knowledge


Frequency resource of GSM system
Requirement for carrier-to-interference ratio
Signal quality grade coding

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Frequency Resource of GSM System


GSM 900 :

890

915

935

960

Duplex distance : 45 MHz

GSM 1800 :

1710

1785

1805

Duplex distance : 95 MHz

Channel Interval 200kHz

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1880

Frequency Band Configuration


GSM900

BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 n 890 n0.2 MHz


BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 n f1 n 45 MHz

GSM1800

BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 n 1710 n 511 0.2


MHz
BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 n f1 n 95
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MHz

Requirement for Carrier-To-Interference Ratio

C/I =

All useful signals


All useless signals

Useful signal

carrier
interference

Noise from environment

Other signals

GSM standard: co-channel C / I >= 9 dB


In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB
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Signal Quality
Receiving quality (RXQUAL parameter)
Level of receiving quality (0 ... 7)

Bit error rate before decoding and error correction

Good
Fairly good
Acceptable
Intolerable

RXQUAL
class
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Mean BER
(%)
0.14
0.28
0.57
1.13
2.26
4.53
9.05
18.1

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BER range
from... to
< 0.2%
0.2 ... 0.4 %
0.4 ... 0.8 %
0.8 ... 1.6 %
1.6 ... 3.2 %
3.2 ... 6.4 %
6.4 ... 12.8 %
> 12.8 %

Question1
If ARFCN is 96,

what is the corresponding frequency value?


If the frequency value is 909.8M in uplink,

what is the corresponding channel number?


If ARFCN is 128

which band does it belong to, GSM900 or 1800 or neither?


If the frequency resource is 6M,

how many channels are there?


if no frequency reuse, how many subscribers can access
network at the same time?
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Chapter 1 Basic knowledge


Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor Cell Planning

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Chapter 2 Frequency planning


2.1 Concept of frequency reuse
2.2 Normal frequency reuse
2.3 Tight frequency reuse

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Concept of Frequency Reuse

Macro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

d
Micro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

..

{fi,fj..fk}

reuse
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..

{fi,fj..fk}

reuse

The Reason of Frequency Reuse


Frequency resource is limited. If there is 8MHz frequency resource,
Case 1:No frequency reuse

8 MHz = 40 channels * 8 timeslots = 320


==> max. 320 users can access the network at the same time.

Case 2:Frequency reuse

If each frequency carrier is reused for n times, then 320*n users can
communicate at the same time. (The actual relation is more than n
times.)

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Problem of Frequency Reuse


Interference coming from 6 co-channel cells

C
q

I
6

fn

1/2

q = D/R = ( 3 k )
fn
At the cell boundary, the interference is
severe

C (q 1)

I
6

fn

fn

fn

fn

fn

Frequency Reuse induce Co-channel interference


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Reuse Density
Reuse density is the number of cells in a basic reuse
cluster.

4*3 12

n*m n*m

n: BTS number in a basic reuse cluster


m: Frequency group number in a BTS
Tighter reuse
0

Looser reuse
10

Higher frequency reuse


efficiency, but interference
is serious. More technique

12

20

Little interference, but frequency


reuse efficiency is low.

Is needed.

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Limited by

Capability

Frequency resource

Frequency reuse

Bit error

Interference

Balance

Quality

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Chapter 2 Frequency planning


2.1 Concept of frequency reuse

2.2 Normal frequency reuse


2.3 Tight frequency reuse

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4*3 Frequency Reuse


C1
A1
C1
A1

A2

A3

C2

C3

B1

A3

A3

D1

B2

B3
A1

A2

D2

D3

C3

B1

B2

D1

B2

B3

A1

C1 C2

A2

C3

B1

D1

D2

D3

B3

D2

D3

C1

A2

A3

4 BTS
3 cells/BTS
12 cells construct
a cluster

C2

C3

B1
B3

C1

C2

A1

D1

B2

D2

D3

A1
A3

A3

C1

A2
B1

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B2

C3

B1

C2

C3

B3

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A2

C2

B2

B3

D1
D3

D2

D1
D3

D2

Illustration of Frequency Allocation of 4*3


Frequency Reuse

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4*3 frequency use


C1
A1
C1
A1
A3

A2

C3

C2
D1

A2

A3

C3

B1

4*3 is normal frequency use

C2

B2

D1

BCCH planning must use 4*3

D2

D3

D2

B3 C1
C2
C1
54
46
B2
42
C2
D3 A1
34
A1
52
A2 C3
A2
40
D1 D2
4456
50
B3
C3
55
C1 C2
D1
47
43
A348 B1 38
D2
A3
36
53 B2 D3 35
A1 A2
B1
57 51
41
B2
C3 D1
45
D3
39
C1
D2 B349
C2 B3
A3
37 A1
B1 B2
A2 C3
D3
D1
D2
B3
A3 B1
B2
D3
B1

B3

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Chapter 2 Frequency planning


2.1 Concept of frequency reuse
2.2 Normal frequency reuse

2.3 Tight frequency reuse

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Tight Frequency Reuse Technology

1 Multi-layer reuse pattern (MRP)


2 1*3
3 1*1
4 Underlaid and overlaid cell

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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern


BCCH: n1
TCH1: n2
TCH2: n3

TCHm-1: nm
n1 n2n3 n4 ...... nm
And n1+n2+...+nm=n

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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern


Consecutive Frequency Allocation
Suppose that the available frequency carrier is

10MHZ, channel number is 46 77, the Multilayer reuse pattern should be:

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Layout

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BCCH

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TCH Layer 1

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TCH Layer 2

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TCH Layer 3

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Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Interval Frequency Allocation


{f1,f2,f3,f4,f5...f40}

{f1,f3,f5...f23}

BCCH

TCH1

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{f2,f4..f22,f24...f40}

TCH2

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TCH3

TCH4

Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern


Capacity increase when reuse density is multiplied:

Supposing there are 300 cells


Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency)
Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12

network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX


Multiple reuse:
BCCH layer:
re-use =14,
(14 frq.)
Normal TCH layer:
re-use =10,
(20 frq.)
Aggressive TCH layer: re-use = 6,
(6 frq.)
Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

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BWi
cap. N
re usei

1*3 frequency reuse


R
R

4*3

1*3

Compare 1*3 frequency reuse with 4*3 reuse


Cell configuration is advanced with the same

frequency resource
Cell Radius is the same Reuse distance is

decreased, Interference is enhanced.


We need use extra technology to resist

interference while using 1*3 frequency reuse


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General Underlay Overlay

Overlay-cell
Underlay-cell

Overlay-cell
Underlay-cell

The inner circle covers a smaller area, and the


frequency can be reused more tightly.
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Intelligent Underlay Overlay

Super fn

Super fn

Super fn
Regular fm

Regular fm

BCCH 15f

BCCH

Regular 24f

Reuse density: 15

R TCH TRX reuse density: 12


S TCH

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TRX reuse density: 6

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Super 12f

Chapter 1 Basic knowledge


Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor cell planning

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Chapter 3 Frequency hopping


3.1 Advantage and class of hopping
3.2 Hopping parameter
3.3 Hopping application

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Concept of Frequency Hopping


BURST
Bn || fn

Bn-1 || fn-1

B1 || f1

Frequency hopping refers to the regular hopping of


carrier frequency within certain range

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Advantages of Hopping
Get an agreeable radio

B4
f4

B3
f3

B2
f2

B1
f1

environment.
Provide a similar

f4
f3
f2
f1

communication quality for

f1

every user .
f1

Tighter reuse patterns

are possible to be used


for larger capacity

Hopping is a special frequency diversity


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Class of Hopping
Class according to the way of implementation

Base-band hopping
RF hopping

Class according to the min hopping time unit

Timeslot hopping
Frequency changes every timeslot.
Frame hopping
Frequency changes every TDMA frame.

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Base Band Hopping Principle

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RF Hopping Principle

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Chapter 3 Frequency hopping


3.1 Advantage and class of hopping

3.2 Hopping parameter


3.3 Hopping application

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Hopping Parameters

What ?

Hopping mode: the mode used by the BTS system, including three options: not

hopping, base band hopping and RF hopping.


MA (Mobile Allocation Set): the set of available frequency when hopping, containing

at most 64 frequency carriers. The frequency being used must be those of the
available frequency
HSN hopping sequence number 0 63 . HSN=0 cycle

hopping,HSN0 random hopping. Every sequence number corresponds a


pseudo random sequence.
MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset): used to define the initial frequency of the

hopping.
TSC: should be set consistent with BCC

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Hopping Parameters
Where ?
All the parameters which are related to hopping are configured

in cell/configure Hopping data

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Chapter 3 Frequency hopping


3.1 Advantage and class of hopping
3.2 Hopping parameter

3.3 Hopping application

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Example of 1*3 Frequency Reuse


Suppose 900 band: 96 124
BTS configuration S3/3/3
BCCH layer 96 109 reuse pattern 4*3
TCH layer 110 124

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reuse pattern 1*3

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TCH Consecutive Allocation Scheme


Cell1
MA1
Cell1
MA1
Cell2

Cell3
MA2
Cell2

Cell3
MA2

MA3

Cell1
MA1

MA3

Cell2

Cell3
MA2

MA3

MAIO
MA1

110

111 112

113

114

0,2

MA2

115

116 117

118

119

0,2

MA3

120

121 122

123

124

0,2

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TCH Interval Allocation Scheme

Cell1
MA1

Cell1
MA1

Cell1
MA1

Cell2

Cell3
MA2

Cell3
MA2

Cell2
MA3

MA3

Cell3
MA2

Cell2
MA3

MAIO
MA1

110 113 116 119 122

0,2,4

MA2

111 114 117 120 123

1,3

MA3

112 115 118 121 124

0,2

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Compare two Allocation Scheme


Different MA value
Different MAIO value
Under 6MHz band Consecutive Allocation support

max site type S3/3/3 theoretically while Interval


Allocation support max type S4/3/3
Consecutive Allocation is usually used in urban area,

While Interval allocation is usually used in town and


country.

In order to decrease the inference between different


BTS, It is better to keep the cell azimuth consistent

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Comparison Between Multi-layer reuse and 1*3


For Multi-layer reuse pattern, either Base band hopping or RF hopping

can be used. But for 1x3 reuse, only RF hopping can be used.
The frequency planning for the 1x3 mode is simple and it is easy to plan

the frequency for new added BTS.


1x3 mode requires a rather regular BTS location distribution.
For the cells with fixed number of TRX, when the traffic is heavy, the 1x3

provides higher service quality than that of Multi-layer reuse pattern.


TRX can be easily added to the 1x3 network, but TRX number of hopping

should not exceed the product of the allocated hopping frequency


number and the max RF load ratio.
BCCH of Multi-layer reuse pattern can take part in the frequency

hopping, while BCCH in 1x3 mode can not.


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Frequency Planning Principle


There should be no co-channel frequency carriers in one BTS.
The frequency separation between BCCH and TCH in the same cell should

be not less than 400K.


When frequency hopping is not used, the separation of TCH in the same

cell should be not less than 400K.


In non-1*3 reuse mode, co-channel should be avoided between the

immediately neighbor BTS.


Neighbor BTS should not have co-channels facing each other directly.
Normally, with 1*3 reuse, the number of the hopping frequencies should be

not less than twice of the number of frequency hopping TRX in the same
cell.
Pay close attention to co-channel reuse, avoiding the situation that the

same BCCH has the same BSIC in adjacent area.


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Example of Frequency Planning


An example network in a specific place, BTS are densely located. The

.
topography
is plain. The maximum BTS configuration is S3/3/2

Initial planning:

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Example of Frequency Planning


Final frequency planning:

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Chapter 1 Basic knowledge


Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor cell planning

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Why
Handover is based on the neighbor relationship.
Existing problem of neighbor planning

No neighbor relationship, no handover


Co-BCCH and co-basic between adjacent cells lead to handover
failure.
redundant neighbors
missing neighbor

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Neighbor Cell Description


There are table BA1 and table BA2.
Table BA1 describes BCCH frequencies of the

adjacent cells to be measured when the MS is in idle


mode.
Table BA2 describes BCCH frequencies of the

adjacent cells to be measured when the MS is in


dedicated mode.
There are two kinds of neighbors

bidirectional neighbors
unidirectional neighbors
Bidirectional neighbors are common, and

unidirectional neighbors are used in special


condition, such as overshooting

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Overshooting and Unidirectional Neighbor


The signals of cell A covers some areas far away from this

B
cell. It is overshooting.
When MS moves from this area towards B and C

in dedicated mode, the signal is worse and worse.

since cell B and C is not the cell As neighbor,


call drop will occur finally.

There are three solution:


Adjust the downtilt of the antenna
Adjust the transmitting power of the BTS
Add B and C as the neighbor of cell A, no need to add
A to B and C, that is unidirectional neighbor.
(make sure that there are no co-BCCH and co-BSIC in neighbor

list)
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Neighbor Planning Principle


The cells of co-site must be set as neighbor cells
The cells confronting directly must be added to neighbor list
The cells facing toward the same direction should be neighbors

The cells shooting by the original cell


The cells shooting at the original cell
The cells, one site apart, face to face should be neighbor cells.

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Demonstration (ideally)

Original cell
co-site cell
Confronting cell
same directional cell
one site apart
face to face cell
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