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# Internal

Frequency Planning
&
Neighbor Cell Planning
ISSUE1.0

www.huawei.com

## Chapter 1 Basic knowledge

Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor Cell Planning

## Content of Basic knowledge

Frequency resource of GSM system
Requirement for carrier-to-interference ratio

GSM 900 :

890

915

935

960

GSM 1800 :

1710

1785

1805

1880

## Frequency Band Configuration

GSM900

BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 n f1 n 45 MHz

GSM1800

MHz
BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 n f1 n 95
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MHz

C/I =

## All useful signals

All useless signals

Useful signal

carrier
interference

Other signals

## GSM standard: co-channel C / I >= 9 dB

In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB
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Signal Quality
Receiving quality (RXQUAL parameter)
Level of receiving quality (0 ... 7)

Good
Fairly good
Acceptable
Intolerable

RXQUAL
class
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Mean BER
(%)
0.14
0.28
0.57
1.13
2.26
4.53
9.05
18.1

BER range
from... to
< 0.2%
0.2 ... 0.4 %
0.4 ... 0.8 %
0.8 ... 1.6 %
1.6 ... 3.2 %
3.2 ... 6.4 %
6.4 ... 12.8 %
> 12.8 %

Question1
If ARFCN is 96,

## what is the corresponding frequency value?

If the frequency value is 909.8M in uplink,

If ARFCN is 128

## which band does it belong to, GSM900 or 1800 or neither?

If the frequency resource is 6M,

## how many channels are there?

if no frequency reuse, how many subscribers can access
network at the same time?
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## Chapter 1 Basic knowledge

Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor Cell Planning

## Chapter 2 Frequency planning

2.1 Concept of frequency reuse
2.2 Normal frequency reuse
2.3 Tight frequency reuse

## Concept of Frequency Reuse

Macro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

d
Micro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

..

{fi,fj..fk}

reuse
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..

{fi,fj..fk}

reuse

## The Reason of Frequency Reuse

Frequency resource is limited. If there is 8MHz frequency resource,
Case 1:No frequency reuse

## 8 MHz = 40 channels * 8 timeslots = 320

==> max. 320 users can access the network at the same time.

## Case 2:Frequency reuse

If each frequency carrier is reused for n times, then 320*n users can
communicate at the same time. (The actual relation is more than n
times.)

## Problem of Frequency Reuse

Interference coming from 6 co-channel cells

C
q

I
6

fn

1/2

q = D/R = ( 3 k )
fn
At the cell boundary, the interference is
severe

C (q 1)

I
6

fn

fn

fn

fn

fn

## Frequency Reuse induce Co-channel interference

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Reuse Density
Reuse density is the number of cells in a basic reuse
cluster.

4*3 12

n*m n*m

## n: BTS number in a basic reuse cluster

m: Frequency group number in a BTS
Tighter reuse
0

Looser reuse
10

## Higher frequency reuse

efficiency, but interference
is serious. More technique

12

20

## Little interference, but frequency

reuse efficiency is low.

Is needed.

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Limited by

Capability

Frequency resource

Frequency reuse

Bit error

Interference

Balance

Quality

## Chapter 2 Frequency planning

2.1 Concept of frequency reuse

## 2.2 Normal frequency reuse

2.3 Tight frequency reuse

## 4*3 Frequency Reuse

C1
A1
C1
A1

A2

A3

C2

C3

B1

A3

A3

D1

B2

B3
A1

A2

D2

D3

C3

B1

B2

D1

B2

B3

A1

C1 C2

A2

C3

B1

D1

D2

D3

B3

D2

D3

C1

A2

A3

4 BTS
3 cells/BTS
12 cells construct
a cluster

C2

C3

B1
B3

C1

C2

A1

D1

B2

D2

D3

A1
A3

A3

C1

A2
B1

B2

C3

B1

C2

C3

B3

A2

C2

B2

B3

D1
D3

D2

D1
D3

D2

Frequency Reuse

C1
A1
C1
A1
A3

A2

C3

C2
D1

A2

A3

C3

B1

C2

B2

D1

D2

D3

D2

B3 C1
C2
C1
54
46
B2
42
C2
D3 A1
34
A1
52
A2 C3
A2
40
D1 D2
4456
50
B3
C3
55
C1 C2
D1
47
43
A348 B1 38
D2
A3
36
53 B2 D3 35
A1 A2
B1
57 51
41
B2
C3 D1
45
D3
39
C1
D2 B349
C2 B3
A3
37 A1
B1 B2
A2 C3
D3
D1
D2
B3
A3 B1
B2
D3
B1

B3

## Chapter 2 Frequency planning

2.1 Concept of frequency reuse
2.2 Normal frequency reuse

## 1 Multi-layer reuse pattern (MRP)

2 1*3
3 1*1
4 Underlaid and overlaid cell

## Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

BCCH: n1
TCH1: n2
TCH2: n3

TCHm-1: nm
n1 n2n3 n4 ...... nm
And n1+n2+...+nm=n

## Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

Consecutive Frequency Allocation
Suppose that the available frequency carrier is

10MHZ, channel number is 46 77, the Multilayer reuse pattern should be:

Layout

BCCH

TCH Layer 1

TCH Layer 2

TCH Layer 3

## Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Interval Frequency Allocation

{f1,f2,f3,f4,f5...f40}

{f1,f3,f5...f23}

BCCH

TCH1

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{f2,f4..f22,f24...f40}

TCH2

TCH3

TCH4

## Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

Capacity increase when reuse density is multiplied:

## Supposing there are 300 cells

Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency)
Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12

## network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000 TRX

Multiple reuse:
BCCH layer:
re-use =14,
(14 frq.)
Normal TCH layer:
re-use =10,
(20 frq.)
Aggressive TCH layer: re-use = 6,
(6 frq.)
Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

BWi
cap. N
re usei

R
R

4*3

1*3

## Compare 1*3 frequency reuse with 4*3 reuse

Cell configuration is advanced with the same

frequency resource
Cell Radius is the same Reuse distance is

## decreased, Interference is enhanced.

We need use extra technology to resist

## interference while using 1*3 frequency reuse

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Overlay-cell
Underlay-cell

Overlay-cell
Underlay-cell

## The inner circle covers a smaller area, and the

frequency can be reused more tightly.
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## Intelligent Underlay Overlay

Super fn

Super fn

Super fn
Regular fm

Regular fm

BCCH 15f

BCCH

Regular 24f

Reuse density: 15

S TCH

Super 12f

## Chapter 1 Basic knowledge

Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor cell planning

## Chapter 3 Frequency hopping

3.1 Advantage and class of hopping
3.2 Hopping parameter
3.3 Hopping application

BURST
Bn || fn

Bn-1 || fn-1

B1 || f1

## Frequency hopping refers to the regular hopping of

carrier frequency within certain range

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B4
f4

B3
f3

B2
f2

B1
f1

environment.
Provide a similar

f4
f3
f2
f1

f1

every user .
f1

## are possible to be used

for larger capacity

## Hopping is a special frequency diversity

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Class of Hopping
Class according to the way of implementation

Base-band hopping
RF hopping

## Class according to the min hopping time unit

Timeslot hopping
Frequency changes every timeslot.
Frame hopping
Frequency changes every TDMA frame.

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RF Hopping Principle

## Chapter 3 Frequency hopping

3.1 Advantage and class of hopping

## 3.2 Hopping parameter

3.3 Hopping application

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Hopping Parameters

What ?

Hopping mode: the mode used by the BTS system, including three options: not

## hopping, base band hopping and RF hopping.

MA (Mobile Allocation Set): the set of available frequency when hopping, containing

at most 64 frequency carriers. The frequency being used must be those of the
available frequency
HSN hopping sequence number 0 63 . HSN=0 cycle

## hopping,HSN0 random hopping. Every sequence number corresponds a

pseudo random sequence.
MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset): used to define the initial frequency of the

hopping.
TSC: should be set consistent with BCC

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Hopping Parameters
Where ?
All the parameters which are related to hopping are configured

## Chapter 3 Frequency hopping

3.1 Advantage and class of hopping
3.2 Hopping parameter

## Example of 1*3 Frequency Reuse

Suppose 900 band: 96 124
BTS configuration S3/3/3
BCCH layer 96 109 reuse pattern 4*3
TCH layer 110 124

Cell1
MA1
Cell1
MA1
Cell2

Cell3
MA2
Cell2

Cell3
MA2

MA3

Cell1
MA1

MA3

Cell2

Cell3
MA2

MA3

MAIO
MA1

110

111 112

113

114

0,2

MA2

115

116 117

118

119

0,2

MA3

120

121 122

123

124

0,2

Cell1
MA1

Cell1
MA1

Cell1
MA1

Cell2

Cell3
MA2

Cell3
MA2

Cell2
MA3

MA3

Cell3
MA2

Cell2
MA3

MAIO
MA1

0,2,4

MA2

1,3

MA3

0,2

## Compare two Allocation Scheme

Different MA value
Different MAIO value
Under 6MHz band Consecutive Allocation support

## max site type S3/3/3 theoretically while Interval

Allocation support max type S4/3/3
Consecutive Allocation is usually used in urban area,

country.

## In order to decrease the inference between different

BTS, It is better to keep the cell azimuth consistent

## Comparison Between Multi-layer reuse and 1*3

For Multi-layer reuse pattern, either Base band hopping or RF hopping

can be used. But for 1x3 reuse, only RF hopping can be used.
The frequency planning for the 1x3 mode is simple and it is easy to plan

## the frequency for new added BTS.

1x3 mode requires a rather regular BTS location distribution.
For the cells with fixed number of TRX, when the traffic is heavy, the 1x3

## provides higher service quality than that of Multi-layer reuse pattern.

TRX can be easily added to the 1x3 network, but TRX number of hopping

## should not exceed the product of the allocated hopping frequency

number and the max RF load ratio.
BCCH of Multi-layer reuse pattern can take part in the frequency

## hopping, while BCCH in 1x3 mode can not.

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## Frequency Planning Principle

There should be no co-channel frequency carriers in one BTS.
The frequency separation between BCCH and TCH in the same cell should

## be not less than 400K.

When frequency hopping is not used, the separation of TCH in the same

## cell should be not less than 400K.

In non-1*3 reuse mode, co-channel should be avoided between the

## immediately neighbor BTS.

Neighbor BTS should not have co-channels facing each other directly.
Normally, with 1*3 reuse, the number of the hopping frequencies should be

not less than twice of the number of frequency hopping TRX in the same
cell.
Pay close attention to co-channel reuse, avoiding the situation that the

## same BCCH has the same BSIC in adjacent area.

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## Example of Frequency Planning

An example network in a specific place, BTS are densely located. The

.
topography
is plain. The maximum BTS configuration is S3/3/2

Initial planning:

## Example of Frequency Planning

Final frequency planning:

## Chapter 1 Basic knowledge

Chapter 2 Frequency planning
Chapter 3 Frequency hopping
Chapter 4 Neighbor cell planning

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Why
Handover is based on the neighbor relationship.
Existing problem of neighbor planning

## No neighbor relationship, no handover

failure.
redundant neighbors
missing neighbor

## Neighbor Cell Description

There are table BA1 and table BA2.
Table BA1 describes BCCH frequencies of the

## adjacent cells to be measured when the MS is in idle

mode.
Table BA2 describes BCCH frequencies of the

## adjacent cells to be measured when the MS is in

dedicated mode.
There are two kinds of neighbors

bidirectional neighbors
unidirectional neighbors
Bidirectional neighbors are common, and

## unidirectional neighbors are used in special

condition, such as overshooting

## Overshooting and Unidirectional Neighbor

The signals of cell A covers some areas far away from this

B
cell. It is overshooting.
When MS moves from this area towards B and C

## since cell B and C is not the cell As neighbor,

call drop will occur finally.

## There are three solution:

Adjust the downtilt of the antenna
Adjust the transmitting power of the BTS
Add B and C as the neighbor of cell A, no need to add
A to B and C, that is unidirectional neighbor.
(make sure that there are no co-BCCH and co-BSIC in neighbor

list)
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## Neighbor Planning Principle

The cells of co-site must be set as neighbor cells
The cells confronting directly must be added to neighbor list
The cells facing toward the same direction should be neighbors

## The cells shooting by the original cell

The cells shooting at the original cell
The cells, one site apart, face to face should be neighbor cells.

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Demonstration (ideally)

Original cell
co-site cell
Confronting cell
same directional cell
one site apart
face to face cell
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