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Item

Analysis

Item Analysis
refers to a statistical technique that
helps instructors identify the
effectiveness of their test items
is a process of examining the
students response to individual item
in the test.
---through this, we can identify which
of the given are good and defective
test items.

Uses of Item Analysis


Item Analysis data provide basis for
efficient class discussion of the test results.
Item Analysis data provide a basis for
remedial work.
Item Analysis data provide a basis for
general improvement of classroom
instruction.
Item Analysis procedures provide a basis
for increased skill in test construction

Two Important
Characteristics of an Item
1. Item

difficulty
2. Discrimination index

1. Item difficulty
(Difficulty Index)

-is defined as the number of students who


are able to answer the item correctly(upper
and lower group) divided by the total
number
of
students.
where:
Formula:
Ru- the no. of students in the upper group

P=R +R
T

the item correctly


u
L
RL-the no. of students in the lower group
answered the item correctly
T- the total no. who tried the item

who answered
who

Difficulty Indices
Index Range Interpretati
on

0.91-0.95
0.76-0.90
0.25-0.75
0.10-0.24
0.05-0.09

Very easy
Easy
Average
Difficult
Very
difficult

2. Discrimination index
It

is the power of the item to


discriminate the students between
those who scored high and those who
scored low in the overall test.
Discrimination index = no. of students in
upper group getting item correct no.
of students in lower group getting item
correct / of the no. of students who
took the test
Formula: D=Ru-RL

Discrimination Indices
Index Range

Interpretation

0.40 or higher
0.30 0.39
0.20 0.29

Very good item


Good item
Reasonably good
item

0.10 0.19
Below 0.10

Marginal item
Poor item

Types of Discrimination Index

No or Zero Discrimination Index


Positive Discrimination Index
Negative Discrimination Index

In

the discussion of results of the


item analysis, the item needs to be
revised or rejected when:
Almost all in both group are able to
answer the item
Both groups find the item too
difficult such that almost none are
able to answer the item correctly
When a negative d is obtained
(i.e more in low group answered
the item)

Additional information to help you decide


which items to eliminate from a test, before
it is again administered is to analyze the
distractors or options.
Conditions:
Miskeying- the upper group chooses a distractor
more frequently than the key
Ex.: A
B
C
D*
1
1
9
2
Guessing- each option is chosen with about equal
frequency
Ex.:
A
B
C*
D
4
3
3
3

Ambiguity-one

of the distractors is chosen with


about the same frequency as the correct answer
by the upper group
Ex.:
A
B
C
D*
6
0
1
6
Poor distractor- some distractors are not chosen
at all by all students in the upper group.
Ex.:
A
B
C
D*
4
0
0
9

Steps in Analyzing Test Results


Arrange

test scores from lowest to highest


Determine the upper/lower 27%
Tally responses of the upper and lower
group
Indicate frequency counts in the item
analysis worksheet
Compute the difficulty and discrimination
indices
Examine the difficulty indices using the
range, classify the items according to the
level of difficulty
Determine the characteristics of each

ITEM improvement and selection guidelines:


-Consideration based on difficulty index and
discrimination
Discrimination
Index

Difficulty Index
0.24 or lower
0.25-0.75
or higher

0.40 and above


(Very good item)

Difficult

Acceptable

Easy

0.30-0.39
(Good item)

Difficult

Improvable

Easy

0.20-0.29
(Reasonably good
item)

Difficult

Marginal

Easy

0.10-0.19
(Marginal item)
Below 0.10
(Poor item)

Rejected

Rejected

Rejected

0.76

Kept for Mastery

How to improve test item


Example:
A Class composed of 38 students. Use 27% to get
the upper and lower groups. Option B is the
correct answer.

Option
s

*B

Upper
10
Lower
10

Compute

the a) difficulty
index(P=Ru+RL/T)and
b)
discrimination index (D=Ru-RL/1/2 T)
b) D=Ru-RL/1/2 T
= 8-4/ (20)
a) P=Ru+RL/T
= 4/10
= 8+4/20
= 0.40 or 40%
=12/20
* Very good item
=0.60 or 60%
* Average/ moderately
difficult

RETAIN,REVISE or REJECT?

Revised the item by modifying distractor


C.

Thank you!!