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CHAPTER 1

Introduction: The Nature of Leadership

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Learning Objectives

Understand why leadership has been defined in so


many different ways
Understand how leadership will be defined in this
book
Understand the controversy about differences
between leadership and management
Understand why it is so difficult to assess
leadership effectiveness

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Learning Objectives (Cont.)

Understand the different indicators used to assess


leadership effectiveness
Understand what aspects of leadership have been
studied the most during the past 50 years
Understand how leadership can be described as
an individual, dyadic, group, or organizational
process
Understand the organization of this book

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Defining Leadership
There are almost as many definitions of

Leadership as there are persons who have


attempted to define the concept. (Stogdill,
1974)

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Definitions of Leadership

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Additional Controversy

Specialized role or shared influence process

Type of influence process

Purpose of influence attempts

Influence based on reason or emotions

Direct versus indirect leadership

Leadership versus management

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Specialized Role or Shared


Influence Process

Specialized Role

Specific leadership role some functions cannot be


shared

Leaders and followers


Shared Influence Process

Naturally occurring

Any member can be a leader at any time

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Type of Influence Process

Leadership only occurs when influence


attempts results in enthusiastic commitment
All types of influence need to be examined
even when forcing or manipulating
subordinates

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Purpose of Influence Attempts

Leadership occurs only when people are


influenced to do what is ethical and
consistent with organizational goals
Look at outcome of the influence attempts
and not necessarily the leaders intended
purpose

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Influence Based on Reason or Emotion

Traditional definitions of leadership


emphasize rational, cognitive processes
Recent views of leadership emphasize
emotional aspects of influence

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Leadership vs. Management

Leaders and managers are completely different


and mutually exclusive

Managers are concerned with doing things


right (efficiency)

Leaders are concerned with doing the right


things (effectiveness)

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Leadership vs. Management (Cont.)

Leaders and managers are different roles but


dont have to be different types of people

Mintzbergs 10 leadership roles


Kotter differentiating between managers and leaders
in terms of core processes and intended outcomes
Rost view of management as an authority
relationship and leadership as a multidirectional
influence relationship

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Direct vs. Indirect Leadership

Direct leadership

Leaders direct influence on immediate subordinates


Leaders direct influence on lower-level employees, peers,
bosses, or outsiders

Indirect leadership

Cascading effect of leadership influence


Influence over formal programs, management systems, and
structural forms
Influence over organizational culture

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A Working Definition of Leadership


Leadership is the process of influencing others
to understand and agree about what needs to
be done and how to do it, and the process of
facilitating individual and collective efforts to
accomplish shared objectives.

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What Leaders Can Influence

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Indicators of Leadership
Effectiveness

Performance and growth of leaders group or organization


Follower attitudes and perceptions of the leader
Leaders contribution to the quality of group processes
Extent to which a person has a successful career as a
leader
Development of a composite measure

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Immediate and Delayed Outcomes

Immediate outcomes easy to measure

Delayed outcomes difficult to assess

Willingness to complete a project


Influenced by extraneous events

Leader can effect both immediate and delayed


outcomes

May be inconsistent and move in opposite directions

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Leadership Causal Chain

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Key Variables in Leadership Theories

Characteristics of the Leader

Characteristics of the Follower

Characteristics of the Situation

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Characteristics of the Leader

Traits (motives, personality, values)


Confidence and optimism
Skills and expertise
Behavior
Integrity (honesty, behavior consistent with values)
Influence tactics
Attributions about followers

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Characteristics of the Follower

Traits (needs, values, self concepts)


Confidence and optimism
Skills and expertise
Attributions about the leader
Trust in the leader
Task commitment and effort
Satisfaction with job and leader

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Characteristics of the Situation

Type of organizational unit


Size of unit
Position power and authority of leader
Task structure and complexity
Task interdependence
Environmental uncertainty
External dependencies
National cultural values

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Causal Relationship Between Key


Variables

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Overview of Major
Research Approaches

Trait approach
Behavior approach
Power-influence approach
Situational approach
Integrative approach

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Level of Conceptualization for Leadership

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization

Intra-Individual Theories

How leaders manage their time


How leader traits and values influence leadership
behavior
How leader skills are related to leader behavior
How leaders make decisions

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Intra-Individual Theories (Cont.)

How leaders are influenced by role expectations and


constraints
How leaders react to feedback and learn from experience
How leaders can use self-management techniques
How leaders can use self-development techniques

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Dyadic Theories

How a leader influences subordinate motivation and task


commitment
How a leader facilitates the work of a subordinate
How a leader interprets information about a subordinate
How a leader develops a subordinates skills and confidence

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Dyadic Theories (Cont.)

How a leader influences subordinate loyalty and trust


How a leader uses influence tactics with a subordinate, peer, or
boss
How a leader and a subordinate influence each other
How a leader develops a cooperative exchange relationship with
a subordinate

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Group-Level Theories

How different leader-member relations affect each other and team


performance
How leadership is shared in the group or team
How leaders organize and coordinate the activities of team members
How leaders influence cooperation and resolve disagreements in the
team or unit

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Group-Level Theories (Cont.)

How leaders influence collective efficacy and optimism for the team or unit
How leaders influence collective learning and innovation in the team or
unit
How leaders influence collective identification of members with the team or
unit
How unit leaders obtain resources and support from the organization and
other units

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Organization-Level Theories

How top executives influence lower-level members


How leaders are selected at each level (and implications of
process for the firm)
How leaders influence organizational culture
How leaders influence the efficiency and the cost of internal
operations

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Research Questions at Different


Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Organization-Level Theories (Cont.)

How leaders influence human relations and human capital in the


organization
How leaders make decisions about competitive strategy and external
initiatives
How conflicts among leaders are resolved in an organization
How leaders influence innovation and major change in an organization

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Level of Conceptualization
for Leadership

Intra-individual process focuses on processes within a single


individual
Dyadic process focuses on the relationship between a leader
and another individual
Group process focuses on the leadership role in a task group
and how a leader contributes to group effectiveness
Organizational process focuses on leadership as a process
that occurs in a larger open system in which groups are a
subsystem
Multi-level theories include constructs from more than one
level of explanation

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Other Bases for Comparing


Leadership Theories

Leader vs. Follower-Centered Theory


Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Theory
Universal vs. Contingency Theory

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be


reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of
the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
publishing as Prentice Hall

Leadership in Organizations

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