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Polygons

Polygons
Definition: A closed figure formed by line segments so that each
segment intersects exactly two others, but only at their
endpoints.

These figures are not polygons

These figures are polygons


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Classifications of a Polygon
Convex: No line containing a side of the polygon contains a point
in its interior

Concave:
A polygon for which there is a line
containing a side of the polygon and
a point in the interior of the polygon.
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Classifications of a Polygon
Regular: A convex polygon in which all interior angles have the
same measure and all sides are the same length

Irregular:

Two sides (or two interior angles) are not


congruent.

Polygon Names
3 sides

Triangle

4 sides

Quadrilateral

5 sides

Pentagon

6 sides

Hexagon

7 sides

Heptagon

8 sides

Octagon

9 sides

Nonagon

10 sides

Decagon

12 sides
n sides

Dodecago
n
n-gon 5

Regular Polygons

Regular polygons have:

All side lengths congruent

All angles congruent

Area of Regular Polygon

Apothem of a polygon: the distance from the center to


any side of the polygon.

Area of Regular Polygon

We can now subdivide the polygon into triangles.

1
Area s a n
2
s side _ length
a apothem
n Number _ of _ sides
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Triangles and Quadrilaterals

Classifying Triangles by Sides

C
BC = 3.55 cm

cm

AB

. 15

=3

=3

.02

AC

cm

Scalene: A triangle in which all 3 sides are different lengths.


A
B
A

7
.4

cm A

3.

47

cm

BC = 5.16 cm

Isosceles: A triangle in which at least 2 sides are equal.


A triangle in which all 3 sides are equal.

=
GI

Equilateral:

3.7

10

m
0c

GH = 3.70 cm
HI = 3.70 cm

Classifying Triangles by Angles


Acute:

A triangle in which all 3 angles are less than 90.

G
76
57
H

Obtuse:

A triangle in which one and only one


angle is greater than 90& less than 180

47

44
28 108 C
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Classifying Triangles by Angles


Right: A triangle in which one and only one angle is 90
A
56
B

90

34

Equiangular: A triangle in which all 3 angles are the same measure.


B

60

60

60
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Classification by Sides
with Flow Charts & Venn Diagrams
polygons

Polygon

triangles

Triangle

scalene

Scalene

Isosceles

isosceles
equilateral

Equilateral

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Classification by Angles
with Flow Charts & Venn Diagrams
Polygon

polygons
triangles

Triangle

right
acute

Right

Obtuse

Acute

Equiangular

equiangular

obtuse
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What is a Quadrilateral?

All

quadrilaterals have four


sides.
They also have four angles.
The sum of the four angles
totals 360
These properties are what
make quadrilaterals alike,
but what makes them
different?

Parallelogram

Two sets of parallel sides

Two sets of congruent sides.

The angles that are opposite each other are


congruent (equal measure).

Rectangle

Has all properties of quadrilateral and


parallelogram

A rectangle also has four right angles.

A rectangle can be referred to as an


equiangular parallelogram because all
four of its angle are right, meaning
they are all 90 (four equal angles).

Rhombus

A rhombus is sometimes referred to as a


slanted square.

A rhombus has all the properties of a


quadrilateral and all the properties of a
parallelogram, in addition to other
properties.

A rhombus is often referred to as a


equilateral parallelogram, because it has four
sides that are congruent (each side length
has equal measure).

Square

The square is the most specific member of


the family of quadrilaterals. The square has
the largest number of properties.

Squares have all the properties of a


quadrilateral, all the properties of a
parallelogram, all the properties of a
rectangle, and all the properties of a
rhombus.

A square can be called a rectangle,


rhombus, or a parallelogram because it has
all of the properties specific to those
figures.

Trapezoid

Unlike a parallelogram,
rectangle, rhombus, and
square who all have two sets
of parallel sides, a trapezoid
only has one set of parallel
sides. These parallel sides are
opposite one another. The
other set of sides are non
parallel.

Isosceles Trapezoid

One can never assume a trapezoid is


isosceles unless they are given that the
trapezoid has specific properties of an
isosceles trapezoid.

Isosceles is defined as having two equal


sides. Therefore, an isosceles trapezoid has
two equal sides. These equal sides are
called the legs of the trapezoid, which are
the non-parallel sides of the trapezoid.

Both pair of base angles in an isosceles


trapezoid are also congruent.

Right Trapezoid

A right trapezoid also has one set of


parallel sides, and one set of nonparallel sides.

A right trapezoid has exactly two right


angles. This means that two angles
measure 90.

There should be no problem


identifying this quadrilateral correctly,
because its just like its name. When
you think of right trapezoid, think of
right angles!

Quadrilateral Family Tree


Quadrilateral

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Square

Its important to have a good understanding


of how each of the quadrilaterals relate to
one another.

Trapezoid

Any quadrilateral that has two sets of


parallel sides can be considered a
parallelogram.
A rectangle and rhombus are both types of
parallelograms, and a square can be
considered a rectangle, rhombus, and a
parallelogram.

Rhombus

Isosceles

Right

Trapezoid

Trapezoid

Any quadrilateral that has one set of


parallel sides is a trapezoid. Isosceles and
Right are two types of trapezoids.