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PITUITARY GLAND

DEFINITION

 Thepituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an


endocrine gland about the size of a pea and
weighing 0.5 g (0.02 oz.).
TYPE

 Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

 Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)


PITUITARY GLAND
TYPE OF DISEASE

* PITUITARY TUMOUR

* DIABETES INSIPIDUS
PITUITARY TUMOUR
 DEFINITION:

An abnormal growth in the pituitary


gland.
SIGN AND SYMPTOM
 Headache
 Nausea and vomiting
 Fatigue
 Weakness
 Cold intolerance
 Constipation
 Low blood pressure
 Body hair loss
 Sexual dysfunction
CAUSES
 uncontrolled cell growth in
the pituitary gland, creating a
tumor, remains UNKNOWN.
 A small percentage of
pituitary tumor cases run in
families, but most have no
apparent HEREDITARY
factor.
RISK FACTOR
 Pituitary tumors can occur at
any age, they're most likely to
occur in OLDER ADULTS.

 People with a family history of


MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE
NEOPLASIA, type I (MEN I) have
an increased risk of pituitary
tumors.
DIAGNOSTIC TEST

 Physical examination
 Endocrine function test include:
* Cortisol level
* FSH level
* LH level
* Serum Prolactin level
* Testosterone level

 Brain imaging - computerized tomography (CT) or


magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

 Vision testing.
Cont…
 Thyroid hormone level
* ( T4 test & TSH test )

 Test that help confirm the


diagnosis:
* MRI of head
* CT brain
BRAIN MRI
COMPLICATION
 Vision loss.

 Permanent hormone
imbalance.

 Sudden bleeding into the


tumor.
TREATMENT
 Surgery
* Hypophysectomy or remove the tumor.
 Radiation therapy
* Shrink the tumor.
 Medication
* Bromocriptine or cabergoline
( 1st line therapy for tumor that release prolactin )
* Ocreotide or pegvisomant
( suppress growth hormone )
DIABETES INSIPIDUS

 DEFINITION

ADH insufficiency from


neurogenic or nephrogenic
origin.
CAUSES
 Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an
uncommon condition that occurs
when the kidneys are unable to
conserve water as they perform their
function of filtering blood. The
amount of water conserved is
controlled by antidiuretic hormone (
ADH), also called vasopressin.
SIGN AND SYMPTOM
 Excretes large amounts of
dilute urine
 Polyuria

 Polydipsia

 Nocturia

 Bladder enlargement

 hydronephrosis
DIAGNOSTIC
 Fluid deprivation test
 Plasma vasopressin response to
increase plasma osmolality
 Measure vasopressin after period of
fluid restriction
 Trial of low dose desmopressin
TREATMENT
 Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
 Desmopressin - for ADH deficiency in
central DI or gestational DI
 Various treatments for NDI:

 Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

 Indomethacin

 Amiloride - combined with HCTZ


COMPLICATION
 Osmolality raised (plasma)
 Chloride levels raised (plasma or serum

 Hypernatraemia
 Hypotension
 Dehydration
 Hypovolaemic shock
REFERENCE
 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/pituita
 www.diabetesinsipidus.org/pets_di
_in_bestfriends.htm
 emedicine.medscape.com/article/
919886-overview/
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