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BALANCING OF ROTATING MACHINES

Field balancing principles/Pertti Leskinen/18.3.2014

Some advice first before starting a balancing exercise


for a rotating machine.
First one must make sure that unbalance is causing the mechanical
vibration that one wants to reduce.
There are other faults having similar vibration behaviour as unbalance.
Alignment fault is often causing vibration to increase at 1xrot frequency
component as well.
Unbalance force and 1xrot freq. vibration amplitude increases by square of
operating speed (ie. frequency).
At constant speed rotating frequency amplitude and phase must be stable
in case of real unbalance problem. If these are varying other faults may be
causing the vibration.
If 1xrot. Freq. amplitude and phase are not stable it may be caused by
resonance of machine structure. It is very difficult to perform balancing in
this case.
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Unbalance, balancing
Faults that can be mixed to
unbalance

Misalignment
Excessive bearing clearance
Bent shaft or rotor
Cracked shaft
Soft foot
Gyroscopic effects
Load or electrical influence
Locked coupling
Foundation problems

Unbalance, balancing
Mass Unbalance
A. Force Unbalance (Static Unbalance)
B. Couple Unbalance (Dynamic Unbalance)
C. Mixed Unbalance (Static + Dynamic Unbalance)
D. Overhung Rotor Unbalance

Unbalance, balancing
Centerhang
rotor

Force Unbalance will be in-phase. 1x rpm always present and normally dominates.

Amplitude increases by square of speed (2x speed increase 4x amplitude increase)


Can be corrected with only 1 balance weight in one plane at rotor CG.

Unbalance, balancing

Couple Unbalance (dynamic unbalance) 180 out-of-phase. 1xrpm always present and normally dominates.

Amplitude varies with square of the speed.


Can also cause high axial vibrations.
Correction requires balance weights in at least 2 planes.

Vibration Diagnostic Chart

Mixed Unbalance most common case.

Phase angle difference depends on distribution of unbalance between bearings


Can sometimes be corrected with only 1 balance weight in one plane at rotor CG but
mostly needs to be balanced as dynamic unbalance

Unbalance, balancing
Overhang
rotor

Overhung Rotor Unbalance causes high 1xrpm in both axial and radial directions.

Axial phase tends to in-phase while radial often unsteady


Overhung rotors often have both force and couple unbalance

Unbalance, balancing, some check before starting the balancing exercise


If it is sure that the machine under study has extra unbalance, check few
things first before starting the balancing exercise:
It is recommended first take some extra time and think over once more why is there
unbalance, is it because of dirty in impeller or possible wear or cracks of impeller or
shaft. Off course cleaning and repair operations must be performed prior a balancing
exercise.

Field balancing
Before starting a balancing exercise think the following things first:
1. Study the places where to put the masses.
2. Get such important machine information as rotor mass, radius of the balancing mass place in a
balancing plane, rotating speed of rotor.
3. Choose the balancing grade where to aim see ISO 1940 standard.
4. Calculate permissible residual unbalance according to ISO standard 1940.
5. Have the balancing weights available.
6. Choose a suitable trial weight (ie. mass), not too heavy, not too light.
7. Trial weight mass = the permissible residual unbalance mass, unless not better information available.
8. (Depending on the machine size and speed the normal trial mass amount is about from 50 g to 300 g
when balancing fans, turbines, generators rotating not over 3000 rpm).

Remember safety before all, stop and think what am I doing!

Dont use too heavy balancing masses! Use only tens of grams
or hundred of grams, not any kilograms (exception hydroturbine
generator rotors).
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Balancing, balancing grades, choose the right balancing grade.

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Balancing, determine permissible residual unbalance


For example if we have a fan
with an extra unbalance.
And we have choosen
balancing grade to be as
G 2,5. The rotor mass is
900 kg, rotating speed of
rotor is 1500 rpm, radius of
balancing weight is 400 mm.
Then we can determine the
permissible residual
unbalance to be about
16 gmm/kg in case of one
plane balancing. It can be
calculated to be as
16x900/400=36 g (grams).
So this 36 g is the
permissible residual
unbalance and is suitable as
a trial weight use too.

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Field balancing , machine runs on its own bearings at site

Different type of balancing:


1. Balancing in one plane
2. Balancing in two or more planes
1.

Balancing in one plane (disks, narrow fan rotors)

Different methods:
2.

graphical solutions and calculations by computer software.

Balancing in more than one plane (generator rotors, turbine rotors, in general long rotors)

Normally performed by using balancing programs.

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Measurement devices needed for balancing


1. Balancing in one plane
Portable vibration meter or vibration analyser (better).
Vibration transducer with magnet.
Tachometer for phase measurement. Not necessary if using four
run graphical method.
In 4 run graphical method you only need a paper with grids, a pen,
a sharp , a ruler and a calculator. No balancing program is needed.

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Measurement devices needed for balancing


2. Two (or more) planes used for balancing:
Normally a commercial balancing program is used for calculations. The program can be
in an analyser itself or in a computer.
Your need a portable spectrum analyser with phase measurement feature.
Vibration transducer with magnet. Key- Phasor transducer to pick up 1 a pulse/at one
revolution of the shaft.
When balancing in two planes at least 3 runs must be recorded before the calculations
for the balancing weight mass and angle (place).

First a reference run is needed, a trial run 1 where trial mass is put
into plane 1, a trial run 2 where the same trial mass is removed from
plane 1 and put into plane 2. After that, the needed calculations can
be performed.
Measure and record 1x amplitude and 1x phase in every run from both planes
(plane 1 and plane 2). So at least one 1xamplitude and 1xphase measurement
must be performed and recorded in one plane.

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Four run graphical balancing method


Four Run Balancing Procedure
First take a Reference measurement as the following :Take an initial vibration reading
and name it as Vel0. Then stop the unit.
Pick three (3) positions where a suitable mass can be attached. Put a 120 degrees
angle between the points.
Name the positions 1, 2 and 3 and mark the places with permanent marker or paint.
Choose a trial weight or mass (remember permissible residual unbalance according to
ISO 1940 standard). Name it as mT.
Attach the weight into position 1. Then start the unit.
Take a vibration reading and name it as Vel1. Then stop the unit.
Remove the mass m from position 1 and put it to the next position 2. Then restart the
unit and name the vibration reading as Vel2. Then stop the unit.
Remove the mass m from position 2 and put it to the next position 3. Then restart the
unit and name the vibration reading as Vel3. Then stop the unit and remove the trial
mass mT.
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Four run graphical balancing method


Using grid paper, choose a scale so that the largest vibration reading can be
drawn into the paper.
Using Vel0, draw a circle using the recorded units as the radius.
Plot the three positions you choose on the circumference.
Again, using the recorded vibration as the radius, draw three circles
according to their respective positions.
The three circles should over lap some where on the page.
Draw a line from the center of Vel0 to where the three circles intersect.
This is the angle at which the final correction mass mc will be placed.
Measure the line and record in the scale units you have chosen. Name it
VelR
Correction mass can be calculated using the following equation:
mc = mT * Vel0 /VelR
Note! During the test runs the original vibration reading Vel0 will be exceed .
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Four run graphical balancing. Note, that this is just a principal


example (ie. not a real measurement).
Record of
Run1/
Vel1

Record of
Ref run/ Vel0

Record of
Ref run2/
Vel2

Vel0

Record
of Run3/
Vel3

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Result:
Draw the vector/
VelR

One Plane Balancing, Graphical Solution


Vibration Vel0,
original unbalance
Final balance
mass/weight

Vibration VelT,
effect of Trial
mass/weight only

45

315

Trial
mass/weight

90
270

Vibration Vel0+T, effect of


original unbalance + Trial
weight

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Same angle , between


Vel0 and VelT
compared to the angle
between Trial weight
and Balance weight
135

215
180

Balancing

Some useful equations:


Centrifugal force caused by an unbalance
Fc=m*e*w^2, where w=2**f, f =frequency of rotation in Hz (1/s)
e= eccentricity = distance of mass centre from centre of rotation.

Example: If we have a rotor with mass of 2165 kg and put a Trial mass of 600 g at radius of 1000 mm and rotor is rotating at 1490 RPM. Trial mass causes a Force of 0.6 kg*1
m*(2* *1490/60*1/s)^2 = 14607,6kgm/s^2 = 14608 N = 1461 kp.

This is 1461/2165*100% of the mass of rotor = 67%

Permissible residual unbalance per unit of rotor would be (if chosen balancing grade G6,3) 40 Uper/m. eper, gmm/kg Now we can calculate how much unbalance mass is
allowed at radius of 1000 mm in this rotor of mass 2165 kg.

Calculation: 40 gmm/kg * 2165kg/1000mm=86,6 g, so the Tial mass 600 g has been quite heavy.

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Field Balancing of an overhang -type FAN


Overhang' type FAN with two roller bearings having
circulation system lubrication
Motor 110 kW frequency converter driven .
Normal service speed is under 1400 rpm
Rotor mass unknown
Rotating direction CW
Diameter of impeller 1400 mm (1,4m)

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Field Balancing example of an overhang -type FAN, calculations made using


Emersons balancing program running in a computer.
First step:
Decision which
type of balancing
is suitable.

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Field Balancing example of an overhang -type FAN, calculations made using


Emersons balancing program running in a computer.
Step 2:
Definition of
measurement
points

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Field Balancing example of an overhang -type FAN, calculations made using


Emersons balancing program running in a computer.

Step 3:
1x vibration and 1x
phase measurement
readings at Reference
run. Original situation, no
extra masses added.

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Field Balancing example of an overhang -type FAN, calculations made using


Emersons balancing program running in a computer.

Step 4:
Installing a Trial weight
or Mass on rotor (on
balancing plane at
radius of 700 mm).

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Field Balancing example of an overhang -type FAN, calculations made using


Emersons balancing program running in a computer.
Step 5:
Readings with Trial
Mass 67 g
installed

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Field Balancing example of an overhang -type FAN, calculations made using


Emersons balancing program running in a computer.
Step 6:
Results of balancing
calculations.

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Field Balancing example of an overhang -type FAN, calculations made using


Emersons balancing program running in a computer.
Step 7:
Trial mass 67 g was welded in place so it was wanted not to be removed,
it was left in its place.

So this mass 67 g must first be compensated by adding 67 g to opposite side of rotor (angle 180 deg from the Trial mass).

Calculation result of balancing mass 43 g must be installed near to the position of Trial mass 67 g (12.4 deg). These two masses 43 g calculated balancing weight
and 67 g compensation mass are in opposite side of each other. This is equal to the situation: The summary effect of them is 25 g balancing weight added to
opposite side of the Trial weight 67 g.

So the final balancing solution was performed so that Trial mass 67 g was left in its place and 25 g mass was added to opposite side of rotor (180 deg from Trial
weight or mass).

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Field Balancing of an overhang -type FAN


1x amplitude and 1x phase during the balancing exercise.
Run 1.
First run, no masses
added.

Run 2.
67 g Trial mass added

Measurement points of
the FAN

Run 3.
Trial mass 67 g was left
in place and 25 g
balancing mass added
in opposite side of rotor
(180 deg from Trial
mass). Speed 1400 rpm

Speed 1402 rpm

Speed 1402 rpm

FAN DE horizontal

7,64 mm/s /330

5,3 mm/s /121

2,2 mm/s /47

FAN DE vertical

3,8 mm/s /155

2,4 mm/s /284

1,3 mm/s /210

FAN NDE horizontal

12,3 mm/s /315

7,5 mm/s /105

3,7 mm/s /35

FAN NDE vertical

3,1 mm/s /174

1,9 mm/s /284

0,6 mm/s /225

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