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Facts Trends and Challenges in

The proof of the following dates and products is available in literature
related to manufacturing
5000-4000 BC Manufacturing started during 5000 4000 BC (Wood work,
ceramics, stones, metal works, earth wares)
2500 BC Sculptures produced by lost wax casting, jewelry Production, earth
wares, glass beads
600-800 AD Steel production
800-1200 AD Sand casting of cast iron
1750 AD Machine tools run by the power of steam engine, resulting in
growth of production and abundant availability of goods
1920-1940 Automation, mass production, interchangeable parts, die casting
and lost wax methods for engineering parts
1940-1960 Computers development, Ceramic mold, nodular iron,
semiconductors, continuous castings

1960-1990 NC, CNC machines, group technology,

robotics and control, CAD / CAM, adaptive controls etc,
squeeze casting, single crystal turbine blades, vacuum
casting, organically bonded sand, compacted graphite,
automation of molding and pouring, large aluminum
castings for aircraft structures for rapid solidification
(advanced, casting, joining, machining, finishing
1990-date Hybrid processes, micro-machining processes,
nano materials, hard machining, lean manufacturing, agile
manufacturing, etc

In 1960s, the success of a manufacturing company

depended on cost
In 1980s, the success of a manufacturing company
depended on quality
Present day, the success of manufacturing company
depends on cost, quality and lead time (lead time is time
between placing the order and receiving it, alternatively,
it is also known as time to market)

Manufacturing Challenges

The emerging economies, the social and political transitions taking place
and the new ways of doing business are changing the world dramatically. It
is visualized through these trends that manufacturing environment of the
future would be extremely competitive and significantly different from
what it is today. In-order to remain successful in such an environment, the
manufacturers needs to be updated with the latest trends and should
possess dynamic capabilities, which need to be distinctly different.

The ability to innovate ideas and to develop a creative

environment for such innovations
in manufacturing

Development of effective and efficient training and education programs for

the manufacturing workforce, as more skilled workforce is required
The use and implementation of information technology in various areas of
the manufacturing industries and their sub-functions
Sustainability of small and medium scale enterprises to provide support to
the large scale manufacturing organizations Focusing on clean and green
manufacturing technologies, the environment and the society issues. The
responsibility for the production process thus goes hand-in-hand with
responsibility for the final disposal of products i.e. recycling in line with
environmental policies.

Need of Advance Manufacturing Technology

Manufacturing is the basis for all economic activities and future growth of a country
At the beginning of 20th century, mass production using efficient machine tools
emerged in USA (Ford motors)
After the second world war, new / advanced manufacturing processes came into
Since 1950s, new technologies have been emerged computerized numerical
flexible manufacturing systems, lean manufacturing, green manufacturing, computer
integrated manufacturing are some of those.
Newer materials have been developed and their processing requires special machine
tools or special manufacturing process
Therefore, there is a vital need to have more efforts to continuously advance
manufacturing technology for a better-off and more stable future

Description and Taxonomy of the Manufacturing

Metal Casting (Net Shape Processes)
Metal Casting is one of the oldest known method for shaping
the materials. It involves pouring molten metal into a mold
having the required shaped cavity and then allowing it to
solidify. When solidified, the desired metal object is taken
out from the mold either by breaking it or taking the mold
apart. The solidified object is called the casting. In this
process, intricate parts can be given strength and rigidity
which is frequently not obtainable by any other
manufacturing process. The major metal casting processes

Sand casting
Permanent mold casting
Continuous casting
Die casting
Slush casting
Centrifugal casting
Evaporative-pattern casting
Lost wax casting
Shell molding
Vacuum sealed molding

Molding (Net Shape Processes)

Molding is generally used in plastics. A hollowed-out block in which liquid,

plastic, molten glass or some ceramic material is filled is called a mold. The
filled in material hardens and gets set inside the mold, replicating its shape. In
order to remove the hardened substance, a release agent is used. There are
about eight major processes in molding.
Hot compression molding
Transfer molding
Injection molding
Extrusion molding
Vacuum forming
Expandable bead molding
Blow Moulding

Material Removal Processes / Machining

(Subtractive Processes)
Metal removal processes in which we remove the excess
material to give the final shape to the product, are often termed
as secondary or machining processes. They are also termed as
finishing processes; which are done to give the required finish or
tolerance to the end product. This means that in both the cases
i.e. either removal of material or finishing of part, the product to
be cut or finished is made by one of the other processes
described above. At instances, the product geometry is very
complex, to be produced by other processes. In such cases the
basic shape of the product is produced using other processes and
the final shape is created by using some machining process. The
major metal removal / machining processes are as given below:

Milling, Turning, Drilling

Broaching, Shaping, Planning
Honing, Etching, Grinding
Finishing Processes
Abrasive Flow Machining
Abrasive Jet Machining
Water Jet Machining
Electro Discharge Machining (EDM)
Wire Cut EDM
Electro Chemical Machining (ECM)
Ultrasonic Machining/Drilling (USM / USD)
Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
Electro Chemical Grinding (ECG)
Hybrid Processes

Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)

Metal working:

De-burring of some critical zones in the machined parts.

Drilling and cutting of the thin and hardened metal sections.
Removing the machining marks, flaws, chrome and anodizing marks.


Cutting of the optical fibers without altering its wavelength.

Cutting, drilling and frosting precision optical lenses.
Cutting extremely thin sections of glass and intricate curved patterns.
Cutting and etching normally inaccessible areas and internal surfaces.
Cleaning and dressing the grinding wheels used for glass.

Cleaning the residues from diamond wheels, dressing wheels of any shape and

Water Jet and Abrasive Water Jet

Machining (WJM and AWJM)

Applications of WJM and AWJM

The Water Jet Cutting (WJC) process is mainly made used in cutting low
strength materials like plastics, wood and aluminium
The major components of Jet equipment (WJ or AWJ) are:
Control System

Process Parameters

1.Hydraulic parameters: Size of the orifice and required pressures.

2. Abrasive Used: Type; Grit size and the flow rate required
3. Target material: Composition of workpiece and mechanical properties such
as hardness etc.
4. Mixing: Inlet angle; tube length, bore diameter;
5. Cutting: Angle of Attack; Stand of Distance (SOD); Traverse Speed