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Extinguishing Systems

Basics and System Overview


Siemens Fire Safety
Product Line Fire Protection
Stefan Langenegger
Head Training, Certification and Quality College

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Building Technologies

Siemens protection concept

Detecting

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Alarming

Extinguishing

Building Technologies

Siemens protection concept

Protection concept for high valued assets


Gas extinguishing systems are specified to extinguish a fire at an
early stage to avoid damage or shut down costs!
early activation of the gas extinguishing system is a must !
time

Automatic detection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Automatic
extinguishing

Alarming

Building Technologies

Extinguishing basics

Flash over

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Building Technologies

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Triangle of fire

Combustible
Fire

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

all three elements must be present !

Building Technologies

The basic extinguishing principles

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Eliminating the HEAT WATER

Combustible

Combustible
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Eliminating the OXYGEN GAS

Combustible

Eliminating the COMBUSTIBLE

September 15, 2
015

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Building Technologies

Basic fire protection objectives - Overview


building
protection

cabinet and object


protection

enclosure
protection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Building Technologies

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The basic extinguishing principles

Combustible

Eliminating the COMBUSTIBLE

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Building Technologies

Advanced fire protection


Professional active fire protection calls for professional passive
and organisational fire protection.
Passive fire protection
realisation of sealed fire compartments
minimisation of fire loads
reduction of protected area sizes and concentration of risks
autonomous ventilation and air conditioning systems and use of fire
dampers
elimination of overpressure if created during discharge
Organisational fire protection
limitation of access to critical risk areas
internal and external alarm organisation

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Building Technologies

Fire detection and extinguishing sectors

Switch off power

High concentration of
valuables / risks
Special applications for
point-type detectors
Unit extinguishing

Detection
Earliest possible detection
by means of room monitoring

Printer

Extinguishing

Protection of people, facilities and


building according to standards

Room extinguishing

Paper Archive
Unit extinguishing
IT

1 Formation of fire compartments


2 Organizational measures
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Protection of key components by


means of equipment monitoring

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Building Technologies

Basic fire protection concept


Basic fire protection objectives: Overview

enclosure
protection

building
protection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

cabinet & object


protection

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Building Technologies

Basic fire protection objectives - Segmentation

Building protection
Sprinkler
Pre-action sprinkler
Foam
Gas extinguishing

Protection of high
valued assets and
against shut down costs
Gas extinguishing
Water spray / fog
Foam
Pre-action sprinkler
Sprinkler

Cabinet or object
protection
CO2
Water spray / fog

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Definitions
Fire extinguishing
= cooling of the flame until the fire is out
Below 500C a flame is not stable anymore. Fire extinguishing also means
avoiding re-ignition.

Fire control
= limiting the fire spread / growth
Limited production of toxic fire gases and smoke.

Inerting
= to avoid ignition
Reduction of the oxygen concentration to a low level or use of high concentrations
of extinguishing agent.

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Determining the right extinguishing concept

Extinguishing concept mainly depends on:


risk situation given by the hazard scenario and the fire load
(personal safety / availability of fire brigades / etc.)

customers protection objective


(why does the customer want to have a fire protection system)
national regulations
(usually do not meet all customer demands but assure basic protection)
fire class

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Fire classes and extinguishing effects


Extinguishing
effects
Fire classes

Flaming fires
(liquids or fusible
B
materials)

Fires of combustible metals


(magnesium etc) D
Fires in electrical
installations

Suffocating effect

Evaporation of water absorbs

If the oxygen in the air drops

considerable heat from the fire.

below 2/3 of the normal

The smaller the water drops,

content, the fire is suffocated.

the faster the cooling effect.

Ember-forming fires
(wood, textiles,
papers etc)
A

Fires of
combustible
gases

Cooling effect

Chemical /
Physical effect
Destruction of the HFC 227 /
Novec 1230 / Powder
molecules reduce the
oxygen in the flame.
(temperature reduction)

Water
Foam
CO2, N2, Ar

HFC 227
Novec 1230
Powder

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

The basic extinguishing principles

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Eliminating the HEAT WATER

Combustible

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Building Technologies

Sprinkler system

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Alternative water extinguishing technologies


The optimum droplet spectrum must be provided to achieve
maximum cooling effect needed for successful fire extinguishing!
key difference to sprinklers
water aerosols
average droplet size:

< 10 m

water mist
average droplet size:

10 m 100 m

water spray
average droplet size:

100 m 400 m

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Deluge water spray system

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

(operated through automatic detection system)

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Building Technologies

Foam systems - Basic segmentation


Excellent behaviour with extinguishing fires of flammable liquids
(often seen in industrial applications).
Light foam
foam expansion:

200 - 1000

Middles foam
foam expansion:

20 - 200

Heavy foam
foam expansion:

4 - 20

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Foam systems - Application examples

heavy
foam

medium
foam

light
foam

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

High expansion foam system

Protection in aircraft hangar


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Building Technologies

High expansions foam system

fix installed foam system


1000 time foam
expansion

Room filling time 36 minutes

Fire class A and B

Storage area
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

High expansions foam system

Extinguishing effect
Prevetion of fire
spread
Reduction of
oxygen
( suffocating
effect)
Reduction of
Energy
(cooling effect)
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Toxicity of extinguishing agent

LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level):


(Lowest concentration at which an adverse toxicological or
physiological effect has been observed)

NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level):


(Highest concentration at which no adverse toxicological or
physiological effect has been observed)

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Door fan test

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Co2 discharge

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Building Technologies

Overpressure in the room

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Building Technologies

Eliminating the OXYGEN GAS

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Suffocating extinguishing effect

Combustible

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Carbon Dioxide CO2

Characteristic of CO2

Agent:
Extinguishing principle:

Room ambient

After discharge

clean
displacement of Oxygen

Extinguishing concentration:

Nitrogen
79%

Nitrogen
Nitrogen
39.5%
79%

min 34%
< 13.8% O2

Storage stage:

as liquid

Effect on people:

dangerous

CO2 50%
Oxygen

Oxygen

21%

O221%
10.5%

(due to medical effect


on blood supply)

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Extinguishing Agent
Inertgas

Liquid gas

CO2

Chemical gas

Not liquified
gas (Vapor)

Liquid gas

Stickstoff

HFC 227

Argon

Novec 1230

Inergen
Argonite
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

CO2 System Pressures

High Pressure Systems

Low Pressure Systems

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Total-flooding Application

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

35

Building Technologies

Local Application with CO2

Fog-nozzle

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

36

Building Technologies

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Total flooding system

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Local application

Air sampling system


Small cylinder

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Deciding Factors

Cylinder space and location.


Number of risk areas, size and proximity to one another.

Pressure relief issues


(building owner, BWIC, security, etc).

Fires - frequency, size and severity.

AHU and PDU shutdown issues.

Fire brigade response times.

Environmental attitude / image of the user.

Room size, construction, integrity and the height of asset within the
protected area.

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Room Integrity
The extinguishing sector must be air tight in order
to obtain the extinguishing concentration for min. 10 min.

Ceiling void

Room

Floor void

Extinguishing sector
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Room Integrity

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Room Integrity
Ventilation dampers (controled by the alarm organisation)

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Nitrogen (N2) extinguishing agent


Characteristic of nitrogen (N2)
Room ambient

Agent:
Extinguishing principle:

clean

After extinguishing

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

79 %

89%

displacement of Oxygen

Extinguishing concentration: min 34%


< 12.5% O2
Oxygen
Storage stage:

as expended gas

Effect on people:

harmless

21%

Oxygen 10-12%

(due to not having medical


effect on blood supply)

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Inert Gas Extinguishing

Inert gas systems aim to drop the O2 to between 10% and 14%.
Ideally inert gas systems aim for ca. 12.5% O2

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Gas extinguishing system: Cerexen application

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

46

Building Technologies

Chemical / Physical extinguishing effect

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Eliminating the HEAT WATER

Combustible

at
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Eliminating the OXYGEN GAS

Combustible

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

47

Building Technologies

Sinorix High pressure technology:

Provide fast and total evaporation of the extinguishing agent already


during discharge which leads to a perfect homogenisation in
the extinguishing sector

average extinguishing time with high pressure: 15 s after end of


discharge
reduced damage to highly valued equipment
less risk of expensive shut down costs due to operational loss.
no risk of critical concentrations of by-products after fire
extinguishing

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Even if the Vapour Pressure is Very Low:

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Building Technologies

Sinorix High Nozzle pressure


is reducing the effective extinguishing time compared
to conventional low pressure systems by up to 50% by only using basic
physical effects given at a minimum nozzle pressure of 10 bar.

Better evaporation

air

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

10 bar

4 bar

air

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Building Technologies

Extinguishing principle with Chemical Agent


The molecule decomposes into its atoms in the flame zone.
This decomposition leads to a volume expansion
and supports the extinguishing process!

Decomposition products are not avoidable


but must be kept below critical concentrations!

1 molecule decomposes into max. 10 free parts, as H finds


always directly a binding partner.
the volume is expands by max. the factor 10
the oxygen concentration is strongly reduced
extinguishing effect

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

52

Building Technologies

Extinguishing principle with HFC 227ea and Novec 1230


Molecule of:

HFC 227 ea
Novec 1230

Heat absorption
(Direct cooling effect)

Volume expansion
(Indirect cooling effect)

HF

(Hydrogen fluoride)

CO2

CO
H2Ov

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

F2

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Building Technologies

High Pressure System technology

High pressure technology: Increased application flexibility

HP
LP

Low pressure system


25bar / N2

advantageofofhigh
hightotolow
lowpressure
pressure
advantage
larger system
smaller pipe dimension
lower installation cost

High pressure system


42 bar / N2

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

High Pressure

Low pressure

Pressure at nozzle

10 bar

4 bar

Nozzle coverage area

30 m2

120 m2

ISO
7.5 / 7.7%

NFPA
7%

Yes < 15sec.

Yes ? sec.

Extinguishing concentration

Extinguishing time

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Application of Sinorix Hardware

total flooding and object protection


- single

and multi sector installations


- closed objects only if minimum holding time of 10 minutes is guaranteed

modular & pre-engineered systems


- no need of hydraulic calculation software
- cylinders are located inside protected area or close by

engineered systems
- use of VdS calculation software
- cylinders are stored in one central battery within a limited distance to the
protected area

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Modular System
4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Control panel
Fire detector
Gas cylinder
Electrical actuator
Nozzle
Alarm horn
Visual alarm
Manual release

2
3
6
Immediate
evacuation

No
admittance

Electrical conection
Electrically controlled line

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Centralised System
5

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Control panel
Fire detectors
Gas cylinder
Electrical actuator
Pipe network
Nozzles
Alarm horn
Visual alarm
Manual release elect.
Check valve
Manual release mech.

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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10

6
3
7
Immediate
evacuation

No
admittance

Electrical conection
Electrically controlled line

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Building Technologies

Single Sector Protection

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Building Technologies

Multi Sector Protection

Room 1

Room 2

Sector valve

Pressure Relief

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Range of Cylinders for HFC 227 and Novec 1230

Cylinder

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Max. filling
227 ea.

Max. filling
Novec 1230

Nitrogen
pressurisation

7.5 lt. (6.6)

7.5 kg

8.0 kg

42 bar

17.5 lt.

19 kg

20 kg

42 bar

32.0 lt.

34 kg

38 kg

42 bar

67.5 lt. (71.0)

74 kg

86 kg

42 bar

80.0 lt.

75 kg

96 kg

42 bar

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Building Technologies

Sinorix 227 Extinguishing System

Sinorix 227
Basic Product Information
Siemens Fire Safety
Product Line Fire Protection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

HFC 227ea Extinguishing agent

HFC 227ea, heptafluoropropane (C3F7H)


halonfluorocarbons (HFCs)

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Toxicology of the HFC 227ea

HFC 227ea has been used as a pharmaceutical since 1942


propellant for anti-asthmatic sprays
no toxic effect if released into protected area
HFC 227ea is a pharmaceutical product
no critical concentrations of by-products after fire extinguishing if used correctly
chemically inert and clean
- no remaining residues after discharge due to complete evaporation
- no interactions with installed equipment

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Extinguishing behaviour of HFC 227ea

best usable for most fire classes


class A (solids)
class B (flammable liquids) and C (flammable gases) fires with
some limitations
very fast extinguishing
discharge time
< 10s
extinguishing time
~ 10s - 15s after end of discharge
electronically non conductive
excellent use to protect electronic risks
low temperature reduction during discharge

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Extinguishing effect of HFC 227ea

thermal decomposition of HFC 227ea at temperatures above 200C


leading to a volumetric expansion of the gas
out of 1 mole HFC 227ea up to 8-10 mole of other gases are formed
oxygen transfer to the flame is limited
due to thermal decomposition HFC 227ea is not optimal for fires leaving hot
surfaces or remaining embers after extinguishing

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Extinguishing performance
Two criteria for fast & reliable extinguishing with HFC 227ea

a must to avoid any critical concentrations of by-products

fast and total evaporation of HFC 227ea already during discharge

perfect homogenisation of HFC 227ea during discharge

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

HFC 227ea Extinguishing agent


Halonfluorocarbons are world-wide used and accepted as substitutes
to Halon 1301 for industrial and fire protection applications.
HFC 227ea is not destroying the stratospheric ozone layer (ODP = 0)
global warming potential of HFC 227ea does not contribute to the
total emission basket following Kyoto protocol (GWP ~ 2900)
no toxic effect if released into protected area
no critical concentrations of by-products after fire extinguishing if
used correctly / chemically inert and clean
no pending ban of the product despite a rumour placed on some
markets

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Possible dangers of HFC 227ea


Concentration to low
forming of HF and danger for persons and installations

Concentration to high
exceed of NOAEL / LOAEL level

NOAEL: 9.0 Vol-%


LOAEL: 10.5 Vol-%

Proper design is necessary!


After installation no changes in the room can be accepted.

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

System characteristics of HFC 227ea System


Cylinder pressure
42 bar, approved and safe technology
Cylinder arrangement
Modular systems with nozzles for each cylinder or engineered systems (67 l
and 80 l cylinders) with manifold and pipe system possible

Activation
Electromagnetic pilot vale, pneumatic slave valves
Multi-sector systems
Selector valves between 3/4 and 4

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Sinorix 1230 Extinguishing System

Sinorix 1230
Basic Product Information

Siemens Fire Safety


Product Line Fire Protection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Novec 1230 Extinguishing agent


Chemical Structure and Specifications

CF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2
C6 Fluoroketone

molecular weight:

316,04

boiling point at 1 bar:

49,0C

liquid density:

vapour pressure at 25C: 0,4 bar

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

1.600 kg / m3

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Building Technologies

Extinguishing Effect with Novec 1230 Agent


Extinguishing Phenomena
similar to FM200 and Halon
the large Novec 1230 agent molecule is split in 18 smaller fractions
(molecules)
due to thermal effects close to the fire leading to a volumetric
expansion and limitation of the oxygen transport to the fire: the fire is
going to be extinguished

Note:

the amount of produced HF during the extinguishing process


is equal to HFC 227ea
during direct contact of Novec 1230 agent with the flame or hot
surfaces

due to this fact Novec 1230 agent is not recommended for other fire
classes than class A (solid material) or electronic equipment showing
slow development of the fire size

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Extinguishing Performance
Fully Evaporating: Even if the Vapour Pressure is Low
as HFC 227, 1230 is a gaseous extinguishing agent
by using the Siemens high pressure technology having a minimum
nozzle
pressure of 10 bar the Novec 1230 fluid is discharging in fine droplets
into the extinguishing sector and fully evaporating
Novec 1230 which has been transferred from liquid into a gas will
remain stable as a gas: there is now draining-out of Novec in the
extinguishing sector leading to form liquid pools on the ground

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Environmental effect
Outstanding Environmental Parameters Close to a Natural Gas

GWP Value = 1
no global warming potential

ALT Value = 5 to 7 days


minimum atmospheric stability

ODP Value = 0
no negative impact on stratospheric ozone layer

chemical structure: no HFC (Halonfluorocarbon)


not affected by any laws and restrictions based upon Kyoto Protocol
such restrictions are already in the market and or some markets
under preparation

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

75

Building Technologies

Extinguishing
Sinorix 1230 High Pressure Technology Assures Fast
and Reliable Fire Extinguishing
key advantages against 25 bar system technology

out of own development already used for Halon 1301 and


still in use for HFC 227

minimum nozzle pressure of 10 bar for fast and full evaporation


of Novec 1230 agent at the nozzle assuring minimum extinguishing
times

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Application of Novec 1230 System


Excellent System Solution in Addition to Natural Gases for
Environmental Sensitive Markets with Restrictions on HFC`s
customer is demanding for environmental friendly gas

strong limitation on the available cylinder storage space

release of overpressure is not possible


e.g. nuclear power plants or room far below ground floor

modular system is demanded

installation of natural gas pipe system during Halon replacement


is very cost intensive

Siemens Fire Safety does not phase out HFC 227


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Building Technologies

Selection of Extinguishing System


Preferable Use for Class A Fires and Electronic Risks

Room
Size

red: typically special hazard

Cerexen

a) N2:

standard

b) CO2: no personal safety


required
c) Ar:

special chemical
risks

GasSpray

HFC 227
Novec 1230
Electronic Risks
Class A
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Liquids
Class B

Gases
Class C

Deep seated
Fires

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Fire
Risk

Building Technologies

Determination of extinguishing concentration

1. Determination
by labor test
(cup burner test)

2. Determination
by real room life test

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Gas extinguishing systems - Basic segmentation

Synthetic agents
HFCs as Halon replacement
ODP value of zero
GWP & ALT value positive
stored liquid suppressed with nitrogen or under its own vapour pressure
low amount of bottles
Natural gases
use of CO2 / N2 / Ar in pure or pre-mixed form environmental friendly
stored gaseous under high pressures
large amount of bottles

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Gas extinguishing systems - Basic characteristics

Chemical agents
fast acting due to rapid discharge
low extinguishing concentrations
due to local acting
optimum ratio between stored agent
and needed storage space
storage pressure 25 45 bar
use for personal safety installations
possible
formation of by-products

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Natural agents
high extinguishing concentrations
due to oxygen replacement
larger storage space required due
to gaseous storage
storage pressure 200 - 300 bar
use for personal safety installations
possible (except CO2)
no formation of by-products

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Building Technologies

Fire protection system overview


Room monitoring
with point detectors
Air conditioning duct
monitoring with ASDduct

Cabinet
monitoring

Raised floor
monitoring
Monitoring of
exhaust air

Object monitoring

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Activation of an extinguishing system


Fire detection

manual

automatic

Alarm
Al.

Control
unit

electrical actuator
manual actuator
pressure switch:

agent discharge

cylinder surveillance

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

Environmental / Toxic effect

Extinguishing
agent

ODP

GWP

ALT

NOAEL

LOAEL

Ozone
depletion
potential

Global
worming
potential

Atmospheric
Life time

No Adverse
Effect Level

Low Adverse
Effect Level

CO2

200 years

> 5%

Nitrogen

< 10% O2

Argon

< 10% O2

Inergen

< 10% O2

Argonite

< 10% O2

HFC 227ea

2050

32 years

9%

Novec 1230

5 days

10 %

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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10.5%

Building Technologies

Product Presentation
Siemens Fire Safety
Product Line Fire Protection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

85

Building Technologies

cerexen

Brand name

Extinguishing with natural gases


Use of same set of hardware for three different individual extinguishing
systems marked under the brand name cerexen using natural gases in
pure form for fire extinguishing.

pure nitrogen (N2),


pure argon (Ar) or
pure carbon dioxide (CO2)

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

cerexen

The right solution for each application

Depending on the application, pure N2, Ar or CO2 is used.


personnel safety must be considered
Nitrogen as dominating solution
- EDP rooms & telecom
- storage buildings
- museums

no personnel safety required


Carbon dioxide for
- industrial applications
- high voltage switching rooms
- transformer stations
- object protection

Argon for special applications or


upon specific customer demand
- storage of chemical substances
- heavier gas is needed

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

87

Building Technologies

cerexen

Room
size

Room protection
red: typically special hazard

Cerexen

a) N2:

standard

b) CO2: no personal safety


required
c) Ar:

special chemical
risks

GasSpray
HFC 227
Novec 1230

Electronic risks
Class A

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Liquids
Class B

Gases
Class C

Deep seated
fires

88

Fire
risk

Building Technologies

cerexen

Differentiation in room protection

relative price for class A

HFC 227 and N2 prices (hardware and gas)


1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6
0
FM200

500
N2

1000

1500
2000
room volume [m3]

HFC is getting relatively more expensive, the larger the protected volume.
Turning point at about 250 m3.
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

89

Building Technologies

cerexen

Outstanding extinguishing performance

The use of natural gases in pure form exhibits at least an equal


extinguishing performance than its mixtures which is proven by
international research program as: (ISO/CEN/CEA).
Agent

Wood crib
[Vol% agent]

Electronic risks
[Vol% agent]

n-Heptane
[Vol% agent]

CO2

37.5

32.0

33.7

N2

37.2

41.5

43.7

Ar

39.9

48.3

50.8

Inergen

36.5

39.2

41.2

Argonite

38.6

44.9

47.3

no need to
use pre-mixed
natural gases

Source: ISO meeting New Orleans 09/2002

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

90

Building Technologies

cerexen

The better solution


compared to pre-mixed gases

Free and unlimited access to the natural gases


faster re-filling of the cylinders after a system discharge due to local
availability of gas suppliers
- pure natural gases are available close to each medium-sized agglomeration
- system is faster back into service, lower shut-down costs

no dependency on specialized authorized suppliers


- mixtures of natural gases are only available from a limited number
of suppliers

no expensive license-fees on a natural gas without


an additional benefit regarding extinguishing performance
- N2, Ar and CO2 are license-free
- the gas price of pre-mixed gases is about 5 times higher

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

cerexen

The better solution


compared to pre-mixed gases

No CO2 in pure N2 and Ar


(pre-mixed gases such as Inergen containing CO2)

CO2 should increase the breathing frequency in the extinguishing zone


after discharge in order to compensate lower oxygen concentration.
- no medical need for this effect: persons in regions of lower oxygen concentration (e.g. above 5000 m) are naturally move and breathe more slowly
- higher frequency could lead do breathing in more possibly toxic smoke gases

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

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Building Technologies

cerexen

Choosing the optimal agent


Due to the necessary concentrations system size:

CO2 < N2 < Ar


system price accordingly.

CO2: The LOAEL-value of 5% is highly exceeded by the design concentrations. Use CO2 only when no personal safety is required or for
object protection.
N2:

Standard agent which guarantees personal safety if the oxygen


rest-concentration does not drop below 10 Vol-%. This is true for
all class A and class B as well as for most class C applications.
More than 90% of all Cerexen installation use nitrogen!

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

93

Building Technologies

cerexen

Ar:

Choosing the optimal agent

Argon installations are more


expensive than nitrogen
installations, as the gas is more
expensive and more cylinders
are needed to reach the design
concentration.

EDPRoom
Vol. [m3]

Cylinder Number
(ISO 14520)
Argon
Nitrogen

50

100

250

10

500

20

18

Argon only if chemically necessary!


E.g.: explosion suppression where hydrogen can be released; reaction
with metals as magnesia or lithium at higher temperatures.

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

94

Building Technologies

Physical Properties of Inert Gases

Extinguishing
agent

Formula

Mol- Weight

Density (Vaper phase)


(at 20C und 1013 mbar)

Carbon dioxide

CO2

44 g/mol

1,84 kg/m3

Argon

Ar2

40 g/mol

1,662 kg/m3

Nitrogen

N2

28 g/mol

1,165 kg/m3

Inergen

52% N2
40% Ar
8% CO2

34 g/mol

1,418 kg/m3

Argonite

50% N2
50% Ar

34 g/mol

1,413 kg/m3

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

95

Building Technologies

cerexen

Application

Carbon dioxide:
- unmanned generator stations
- unmanned transformer rooms
- local application: oil baths, turbines, kitchen devices
Nitrogen:
- Computer rooms
- Storage of plastic boxes
- Cable channels
- Manned transformer/ generator/ switch rooms
- Military depots
- Archives
- Warehouses
- Cotton storage rooms
- Museums
Argon:
- Chemical storage rooms with the risk of metal fires
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

96

Building Technologies

cerexen

Key characteristics

Excellent extinguishing performance for class A, B and C fires


- best suited for fast growing fires
- excellent performance with flammable liquids and gases
(explosion protection by enclosure inerting)
Electronically non conductive
- best applicable for electronic risks
Use of natural gas
- no remaining residues after discharge
Excellent performance with deep seated fires with 20 min. hold
time
- best applicable for archives or cotton stocks
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

97

Building Technologies

cerexen

N2 and Ar system characteristics

Cylinder pressure

200 and 300bar, approved and safe technology, allowing pipe systems of any length
and height difference.

Cylinder arrangement
One, two or four lines. Up to 60 cylinders in one battery! A high storage flexibility is the
result as 80l cylinders are available. Horizontal storage possible.

Activation
Electromagnetic pilot valve, pneumatic slave valves. Booster-set in case of larger
cylinder batteries.

Pressure reduction
With orifice plate to 60 bar behind high-pressure hoses and high pressure manifold.
In case of multi-sector systems, the orifice plate is in front of the selector valves.

Multi-sector systems

Selector ball valves between 1 and 2

Over-pressure flaps

Pneumatic and mechanical in different sizes

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

98

Building Technologies

cerexen

Minimum requirements on storage space

Compact cylinder assemblies allow significant reduction of storage


space! maximum of 60 cylinders ( 1700 m3 EDP-Room)
5 m2 surface area per cylinder assembly package only
Four-line arrangement exclusively offered by Siemens Fire Safety!

Protection of a center for mobile


telecommunication in Switzerland

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

99

Building Technologies

cerexen

Storage examples

Use of total volume of


storage rooms
is possible only with
four line arrangement!

Telecommunication room in Hungary

EDP room in Denmark


Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

100

Building Technologies

cerexen

Overpressure relief openings

All extinguishing systems using natural gases do need over-pressure


relief openings to avoid complete destruction of the protected area independent of the natural gas used !

Siemens Fire Safety as a system builder includes its own


overpressure flaps in its cerexen package!

Optimized cerexen overpressure relief openings allow minimum areas


due to pneumatic activation of the overpressure openings.

increased free surface area and better pressure drop coefficient


compared to conventional mechanically overpressure flaps.

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

101

Building Technologies

cerexen

Stability after discharge of Nitrogen


Oxygen Concentration after Discharge

Oxygen Concentration [Vol%]

14.0

13.0

O2% on 90% room height


O2% on 50% room height
O2% on 10% room height
max. O2 level after CEA 4008

12.0

11.0

10.0
0

60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 660 720 780 840 900
Time [s]

Test room 110 m3 / 60 s discharge time

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

102

Building Technologies

cerexen

International acceptance

The cerexen gases recognized by the following


- authorities & test houses:
VdS, LPC, FM, UL, CNPP, HK-FSD, other national ones
- standards:
CEA 4007&4008 / NFPA 2001 / UL 2127 / ISO & CEN 14520
All three cerexen gases are widely used in Europe & Asia Pacific:
- Nitrogen:
IG-100
- Argon:
IG-01
- Carbon Dioxide: Carbon Dioxide

Siemens Fire Safety introduced nitrogen internationally


as extinguishing agent!

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

103

Building Technologies

cerexen

Approvals

Approvals for cerexen


VdS system approval
- system design
- hardware
- hydraulic software
Hong Kong FSD
China approval
CNPP French approval
SSL Australian approval
LPC component listing pending
FM approval pending

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

104

Building Technologies

CerSpray
Water Spray for Local Applications
Siemens Fire Safety
Product Line Fire Protection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

105

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Advanced water spray technology

Objective:
Protection of local applications or industrial objects

Advantage:
Fast extinguishing and cooling
Agent:
Water spray with optimised droplet diameter
patented technology
Application examples:
- engines
- energy generating facilities
(turbines & generators)
- pump stations
- oil & gas industry
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

106

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Extinguishing effect

Maximum cooling effect due to optimised droplet size so that


to ensure that the water droplet enter the fire zone
No supporting inerting effect and therefore no enclosure around the protected object is needed: the fire is extinguished by the water droplets
Too large droplets:
low specific surface
bad cooling effect
no fire extinguishing
Too small droplets:
droplets vaporise before reaching
the fire zone
no fire extinguishing

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

107

Building Technologies

CerSpray Key advantage compared to water fog systems


CerSpray
does extinguish small open fires and avoids re-ignition after flame out.
suitable for local applications!

Water fog systems


try to reduce the oxygen concentration for fire extinguishing by
enclosure inerting with water vapour.
min. enclosure temperature 85C
huge fire is needed
huge damage on equipment
enclosure must be tight
no local applications

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

108

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Necessary water concentrations


Physical prove (VdS research)

0,35

Water amount [kg/m3]

0,30
0,25
0,20
0,15
0,10
0,05
0,00
0,00

polypropylen fire
0,40

0,80

1,20

Fire area [m2] 1,60

Minimum water concentration for small fires (below 1 MW):

170 g/m3

For large fires (above 1 MW):

350 g/m3

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

109

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Droplet density

Maximum
Droplet
Density per
Enclosure
Volumevolume
Maximum
droplet
density
per
enclosure

Maximum Droplet Density [g/m3]

120

100

80

60

40

20

required stability time = 1 minute


0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Droplet Diameter [m]

Nuclear safety research: examination of aerosol behaviour in large-scale


Maximum possible concentration for water droplets at ambient temperature:
100 g/m3 for water fog droplet sizes
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

110

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Maximum vapor content


Determination of the maximum vapour content

500

Water vapour density [g/m ]

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Temperature [C]

Dew-point line of vapor/air: at 20C 20 g/m3


Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

111

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Conclusion

At 20C the necessary water fog density of 170 g/m 3 cannot be


obtained by the combination of vaporized water and water fog in
form of droplets.

Water fog systems cannot extinguish fires at ambient temperature


safely, when used for room protection.
Higher temperatures higher vapor density
Safe extinguishing of large fires (= 350 g/m3 water density)
T > 85C!!

We do not use the inertisation effect but bring the droplets directly to the seat of the fire!

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

112

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Use for local application only

CerSpray is not designed for total discharge since necessary inerting effect
by water vapour can not be guaranteed!
CerSpray is designed for fast extinguishing of rapidly growing fires
on industrial objects and effective cooling of remaining hot surfaces!
optimised droplet spectrum
- based on in-house research
optimum nozzle position
- nozzles are placed beside the
protected object
extinguishing of small open fires possible
- allows the use of fast acting fire detection
systems

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

113

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Where to use for local applications ?

Corrodibility
of risk

high

All: typically special hazard

Cerexen
with CO2

low

Foam

none

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

CerSpray

medium

high

114

Personal
safety

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Wide range of applications

Patented coupling between cerexen and non-pressurised water


cylinders provides for an of optimum droplet spectrum on low
hydraulic pressures using standard nozzles !
no need for stainless steel high pressure piping
steady state conditions at the nozzles depending on the minimum
spray time realisation with cerexen or with pump
single sector systems and
multi sector systems

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

115

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Single sector applications

Low pressure technology allows to add up to eight water cylinders to


one sole cerexen cylinder.
600L of water per cerexen cylinder
Orifice

N2

cerexen

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Water cylinders

Pipe system with nozzles

116

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Multi sector applications

One common cylinder storage to protect several local applications


unique application advantage of CerSpray

Water sector valves

cerexen
cerexen
Control cylinder
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Water cylinders

117

Building Technologies

CerSpray

System characteristics

Cylinder pressure
Nitrogen 200 bar, approved and safe technology, allowing pipe systems of any
length and height difference, water cylinders are unpressurized.

Cylinder arrangement
One, two, three or four lines. Up to 60 cylinders in one battery!
The result is a high storage flexibility.

Activation
Electromagnetic nitrogen pilot valve, pneumatic nitrogen slave valves. Water
cylinder valves do not have any moving parts.

Pressure reduction
With orifice plate to 20 bar behind nitrogen high-pressure part.
A nozzle pressure of 10 to 20 bar results.

Multi-sector systems

Selector ball valves between 1 and 2

Pipes

PN 40

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

118

Building Technologies

CerSpray

Approvals

CerSpray has successfully passed VdS fire tests and


has system approval pending:
CerSpray is the first water spray system having a
VdS approval for engines and similar objects!
FM, LPC component listing will be realized via VdS
Design: Based on a verified software tool and object properties

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

119

Building Technologies

GasSpray
Advanced Room Protection
Siemens Fire Safety
Product Line Fire Protection

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

120

Building Technologies

GasSpray Room protection with nitrogen and water fog


Objective:
Room protection: Fast extinguishing and cooling of gases and hot surfaces
Agent:
Nitrogen:
Water fog:

Fast reliable extinguishing, known from Cerexen


- Cooling of gases and hot surfaces
- Washing out of smoke gases reduced toxicity

Advantages:
Additional fire safety:
no re-ignition of deep seated fires
Additional personal safety:
cooled surfaces and reduced toxicity
Application examples:
Archives
Cotton storehouses
Risk of spreading liquid fires
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

121

Building Technologies

GasSpray Extinguishing effect


Nitrogen flooding guarantees the extinguishing of all fire
classes in an early stage due to the inertisation effect!
Cooling effect
Water fog with fine droplets (10 50 m) guarantees optimum cooling
High specific surface for high heat transfer

Disadvantages of conventional
water fog systems
Extinguishing effect only above 85C
huge fires high damages
Completely sealed rooms necessary

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

60

50
Cooling capacity [W/m 3K]

uniform homogeneous distribution of


the water droplets, since released
together with nitrogen

40

30
20

10
0
10

30

50

70

90

Droplet diam eter [ m ]

Cooling capacity of 0.7 kg/m3 water


in relation to droplet diameter

122

Building Technologies

GasSpray Necessary water concentrations


Physical prove (VdS research)
0,35

Water amount [kg/m3]

0,30
0,25
0,20
0,15
0,10
0,05
0,00
0,00

polypropylen fire
0,40

0,80

1,20

Fire area [m2] 1,60

Minimum water concentration for small fires (below 1 MW):

170 g/m3

For large fires (above 1 MW):

350 g/m3

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

123

Building Technologies

GasSpray Droplet density


Maximum
Droplet
Density per
Enclosure
Volumevolume
Maximum
droplet
density
per
enclosure

Maximum Droplet Density [g/m3]

120

100

80

60

40

20

required stability time = 1 minute


0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Droplet Diameter [m]

Nuclear safety research: examination of aerosol behaviour in large-scale


Maximum possible concentration for water droplets at ambient temperature:
100 g/m3 for water fog droplet sizes
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

124

Building Technologies

GasSpray Maximum vapor content


Determination of the maximum vapour content
500

Water vapour density [g/m ]

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Temperature [C]

Dew-point line of vapor/air: at 20C 20 g/m3


Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

125

Building Technologies

GasSpray Conclusion
At 20C the necessary water fog density of 170 g/m3 cannot be
obtained by the combination of vaporized water and water fog in
form of droplets.
Water fog systems cannot extinguish fires at ambient temperature
safely, if used for room protection.
Higher temperatures higher vapor density
Safe extinguishing of large fires (= 350 g/m3 water density)
T > 85C!!
Therefore we add Water Fog to Nitrogen!

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

126

Building Technologies

GasSpray Applications
Patented coupling between cerexen and non-pressurised water
cylinders from CerSpray system !
Simultaneous discharge of Nitrogen and water fog.
One pipe system for nitrogen and water fog flooding using standard
material.
Separated gas and water orifices adjusted to each other to assure
optimum gas and water discharge. Design based on the phenomenon
of critical flow.
Single sector systems and
Multi sector systems

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

127

Building Technologies

GasSpray Room protection

Room
size

red: typically special hazard

Cerexen

a) N2:

standard

b) CO2: no personal safety


required
c) Ar:

special chemical
risks

GasSpray
FM200

Electronic risks
Class A

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

Liquids
Class B

Gases
Class C

Deep seated
fires

128

Fire
risk

Building Technologies

GasSpray Single sector applications


Water discharge: 300 to 700 g/m3 (depending on risk and room surface)
Combination range of 4 to 13 cylinders N2 with one cylinder of water
(depending on fire class and selected water amount)

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

129

Building Technologies

GasSpray Multi sector applications


Each sector might need own water storage, as water and gas orifice
have to be adjusted to each other.

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

130

Building Technologies

GasSpray System characteristics


Cylinder pressure
Nitrogen 200 bar, approved and safe technology, allowing pipe systems of any length
and height difference, water cylinders are unpressurized.

Cylinder arrangement
One, two or four lines. Up to 60 cylinders in one battery!
A high storage flexibility is resulting.

Activation
Electromagnetic nitrogen pilot valve, pneumatic nitrogen slave valves. Booster-set
in case of larger cylinder batteries. Water cylinders valves do not have any moving
parts.

Pressure reduction
With orifice plate to 60 bar behind high-pressure part. In case of multi-sector systems,
the orifice plate is in front of the selector valves.

Multi-sector systems

Selector ball valves between 1 and 3

Pipes

PN 80

Over-pressure flaps

pneumatic and mechanical in different sizes

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

131

Building Technologies

GasSpray Minimum requirements on storage space


Compact cylinder assemblies allow significant reduction of storage
space! maximum of 60 cylinders ( 1700 m3 EDP-Room)
5 m2 surface area per cylinder assembly package only
Four-line arrangement exclusively offered by Siemens Fire Safety!

Example of connection
to the manifolds

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

132

Building Technologies

GasSpray

Calculation of the actual water amount

The necessary amount of water depends on room size, surface and fire
risk. The surface of the fire load has to be cooled by the resulting water
film, in order to reduce the actual temperature (= in the worst case the
reaction temperature of the fire TR) down below the value of flammability
(TF).
The resulting enthalpy equation

TR TF c p, FL FL z

MH2O
hH20
A Room

depends both on the fire load and on the room data.

This calculation is done for each case at SBT HQ!

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

133

Building Technologies

GasSpray Approvals
GasSpray has successfully passed VdS fire tests and has system
approval pending:
GasSpray is the first nitrogen + water fog system
having a VdS approval for room protection!
FM, LPC component listing will be realized via VdS
Design: Based on a verified software tool and object properties

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

134

Building Technologies

Gas-Lschtechnik Inerte Lschgase


Vergleich Lschgasmengen

Halon
1301

1 Fl.

NOVEC
1230

2 Fl.

CO2

4 Fl.

Stickstoff 300 bar

5 Fl.

Inergen 300 bar

5 Fl.
Argon 300 bar
Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

135

6 Fl.

Building Technologies

Extinguishing system solutions


Natural agent
CO2

CerSpray

Nitrogen

Argon

Chemical agent

GasSpray

FM200
Novec 1230

Siemens Switzerland Ltd.

136

Building Technologies