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CNIT 276

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Why Use Networks?

Group of computers and devices
Connected by transmission media

Stand-alone computer
Not connected to other computers
Uses local software and data

Advantages of networks
Device sharing by multiple users
Saves money and time

Central network management

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Peer-to-Peer Networks
Direct computer communication
Equal authority

Individual resource sharing

May share resources
May prevent access to resources

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Peer-to-Peer Networks (contd.)

Simple configuration
Less expensive
Compared to other network models

Not flexible
Not necessarily secure
Not practical for large installations

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Client/Server Networks
Central computer
Facilitates communication and resource sharing

Personal computers
Also known as workstations

Central resource sharing controlled by server

Sharing data, storage space, devices

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Client/Server Networks (contd.)

Advantages relative to peer-to-peer networks
User credential assigned from one place
Multiple shared resource access centrally controlled
Central problem monitoring, diagnostics, correction
Optimized to handle heavy processing loads
Can connect many computers on a network

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LANs, MANs, and WANs

LAN (local area network)
Network confined to a relatively small space
LANs became popular as peer-to-peer based

Larger and more complex client/server network

MAN (metropolitan area network)

Connects clients and servers from multiple buildings
Uses different transmission media and technology
than LAN
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LANs, MANs, and WANs (contd.)

WAN (wide area network)
Connects two or more geographically distinct LANs or
Uses different transmission methods and media than
Network connection
Separate offices in same organization
Separate offices in different organizations

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Simple Physical Topologies

Physical topology
Physical network nodes layout
Does not specify:
Device types
Connectivity methods
Addressing schemes

Fundamental shapes
Bus, ring, star

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Bus topology
Single cable
Connects all network nodes

Physical medium
Coaxial cable

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A terminated bus topology network

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

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Ring topology
Node connects to nearest two nodes
Circular network
Clockwise data transmission
One direction (unidirectional) around ring

Active topology
Workstation participates in data delivery
Data stops at destination

Physical medium
Twisted pair or fiber-optic cabling
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Ring (contd.)
Malfunctioning workstation can disable network
Not very flexible or scalable

A ring topology network

Courtesy Course
Technology/Cengage Learning

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Star topology
Node connects through central device
Router or switch

Physical medium
Twisted pair or fiber-optic cabling

Single cable connects only two devices

Fault tolerant

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Star (contd.)
Most popular fundamental layout
Modern Ethernet networks based on star topology

A star topology network

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OSI Model

Table 2-1 Functions of the OSI layers

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

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TCP/IP Model
The TCP/IP model incorporates the general concepts and structure of the OSI model.
The layers of the TCP/IP model are as follows:



The Application layer corresponds to the Session, Presentation, and Application layers
of the OSI model. Protocols associated with the Application layer include FTP, HTTP,
Telnet, Smtp, DNS, and SNMP.


The Host-to-host layer is comparable to the Transport layer of the OSI model and is
responsible for error checking and reliable packet delivery. Protocols associated with
the Host-to-host layer include Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and User-Datagram
Protocol (UDP).


The Internet layer is comparable to the Network layer of the OSI model. It is
responsible for moving packets through a network. Protocols associated with the
Internet layer include Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).


The Network Access layer corresponds to the functions of the Physical and Data Link
layers of the OSI model. It is responsible for describing the physical layout of the
network and how messages are formatted on the transmission medium.

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Figure 4-1 The TCP/IP model compared with the OSI model
Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning
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