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Gravitation of earth

Introduction to rotational motion

Centrifugal
force
Gravitational
force =
Vc

Escape velocity

Escape velocity
If we throw a object up such a velocity that
it goes out of earths gravity it velocity is
called escape velocity
It means that by the time its velocity
reduces to zero due to gravity it had
reached a point where earths gravitational
force is also is zero.
Hence the object will never return to earth

B
V=0

Fg=0
Throw a ball of (mass m) up
Initial velocity at point A = U,
and Gravitational force = Fg

Final velocity at point B, V=0

& gravitational force Fg =0

Fg

Me = mass of
earth

v = u +(- gt )

B Fg=0
V=0

R
U

Thus earth will not attract the


object & it will not return back
to earth

A
R

Fg =

(G ) ( Me m )
r2

The initial velocity U is called


Fg

Me = mass of
earth

escape velocity
v = u +(gt )

Ex :Calculate initial velocity such that ball we


reach height 5 m
When we throw a ball up it KE
B
gets converted to PE
5m
KE at point A = PE at point B
U m/sec
A
R
Me = mass of
earth

PE at point B = m x 10 x 5 J
KE at point A = x m x U2 J
x m x U2 = m x 10 x 5
U2 = 2 x 10 x 5
U2 = 100
U = 10m/sec

Calculations of escape velocity


B To throw object from point A on
earth to a point B in space we
have to do work against earth
gravitational force Fg
This can be calculated by formula
A
work = F x distance moved
R
Me = mass of
earth

Escape velocity Fg is continuously reducing as r


increases
Consider a very small distance
dr

B
A
Fg

dr. at distance r from earth


center
We assume that over this
distance Fg is constant as dr is
very small
Work done to lift ball from A

to B dw = Fg x dr

Escape velocity
B
Work done to lift ball from A
dr

B
A

to B dw = Fg x dr

If we can add work done over


every such small dr from A to B,
Fg
we will get net work
done
A
against gravity. Now
A
R

Me = mass of
earth

Fg = (G ) ( Me m )
r2

Calculations of
(G
)

(
Me

m
)
dw
dr
=
work done
r2
B
Using calculus we can add such
dr

B
A

small work( dw1+ dw2 +dw3+ -----)1


for r changing from A to B .(B is
point at infinity where Fg =0 ).

A
R

Me = mass of
earth

This give total work done. Ans is


PE at B = Work done from A to B
(G ) ( Me m ) J
=
R

PE at B = Work done from A to B = KE at A


(G
)

(
Me

m
)
J
2

m
U
=
B
R
2
x
(G
)

(
Me)
U2 =
R
24
-11
5.98
10
2

6.67
10

U2 =
U
(6.37 10 6 )
A
R

Me

U2 =

2 6.67 5.98 10 24 -11-6

6.37
U2 = 12.52 10 7 = 125.2 10 6
U = 11.19 10 3 = 11200m/sec

Value of gravitational force/ acceleration os


different objects (Density is assumed to be
uniform)
g at equator & pole
Fg inside & outside a solid sphere
Fg inside & outside a shell
g at height h above earth
Lift problems
Drag force

Earth radius at equator is more than poles


g at equator = 9.780 m/sec2
g at pole
= 9.832 m/sec 2
Weight of body as measured by spring
balance(force due to earths gravitation)
increases from equator to pole but mass
remains same
6.351 10 6 meters at pole
6.378 10 6 meters at equator

Finding latitude from value of g

Value of gravitational force/ acceleration os


different objects (Density is assumed to be
uniform)
g at equator & pole
Fg inside & outside a solid sphere
Fg inside & outside a shell
g at height h above earth
Lift problems
Drag force

Gravitational force inside & outside a solid sphere


Case 1. If a particle of mass m is located outside
a homogeneous solid sphere of
Case 2. If a particle of mass m is located inside a
homogeneous solid sphere of

The sphere attracts mass out side if as though


the mass of the sphere were concentrated at its
center..
r

( R+ r )2


r
Fg
r

M = mass of inner
sphere
The net gravitational
force at poet Q due
to outer material of
main sphere is zero

The sphere has a uniform density, , in kg/m3,


Let the mass of the full sphere (radius R ) = M kg
Let mass of the inner sphere (radius r = M kg

F
Inner
Inner
sphere
sphere

The sphere has a uniform density, , in kg/m3,


Let the mass of the full sphere = M kg
Let mass of the inner sphere = M kg

F
Inner
sphere

The sphere has a uniform density, , in kg/m3,


Let the mass of the interior sphere = M kg
Let mass of the inner sphere = M kg

F
F

Inner
sphere

r
F = F x R
As r reduces F will reduce
At center of sphere
r = 0 hence F = 0
Gravitational force at
center of solid sphere is = 0

Graph of F for solid sphere


F

gr

r
(R+r)3
(As R<< r, R + r = r )

gr
R

r
r
Graph of gr for solid sphere

Fg = max, V = 0

+ve

Fg = 0
V = max

Fg
Fg = - max V = 0

Time for oscillation of a


ball in tunnel = 84 .3 min
Time for a satellite
to make full round
on surface of
earth will be also
84.3min

A proposal was made to operate a


A transport system in a tunnel
between two cities A & B, using
this
One-way trip well about 42 min.
Precise calculation were done as
Earths density is not uniform.
Practical problems were
How to make frictionless tunnel,
Temperature inside earth is high
Magma will come out etc

Value of gravitational force/ acceleration os


different objects (Density is assumed to be
uniform)
g at equator & pole
Fg inside & outside a solid sphere
Fg inside & outside a shell
g at height h above earth
Lift problems
Drag force

Gravitational force due to Spherical Shell of


uniform density
1 Particle located outside a spherical shell
2. If the particle is located inside the shell

Case 2

Case 1

Shell of
mass M

If a particle of mass m is located outside a


spherical shell of mass M at point P, the shell
attracts the particle as if the mass of the shell is
concentrated at its center

If the particle is located inside the shell (at point


P in Fig ),the gravitational force acting on it = 0

Shell of mass

Value of gravitational force/ acceleration os


different objects (Density is assumed to be
uniform)
g at equator & pole
Fg inside & outside a solid sphere
Fg inside & outside a shell
g at height h above earth
Lift problems
Drag force

The g decreases with altitude:

GM E
2
g (0)
9.83 m/s
2
RE

GM E
g ( h)
2
( RE h)

Once the altitude becomes comparable


to the radius of the Earth, the decrease
in the acceleration of gravity is much
larger:
Radius of earth
= 6370km

GM E
g (r ) 2
r

What is the acceleration due


to gravity of an object at the
altitude of the space shuttles
orbit, about 400 km above
the Earths surface?

r RE h (6370 km) (400 km) 6770 km


Fg

GmM E
GM E
a

/m 2
2
m
r
r
(6.67 1011 m 2 /kg 2 )(5.98 10 24 kg)
2

8.70 m/s
6
2
(6.77 10 m)

If altitude of International Space Station is 385


km above the Earths surface, what is its period
of rotation

2 r vT

2 r
v
T

M E m mv 2
Fg G 2
r
r

GM E 4 2 r 2

r
T2

( RE h)
4
r
3
T
r 2
2
GM E
GM E
GM E
2

25 june

Elevator & weightlessness problems

Apparent Weight
Your perception of your weight is based on
the contact forces between your body and
your surroundings.
If your surroundings
are accelerating,
your apparent
weight may be more
or less than your
actual weight.

Understanding perception of weight


Actual weight of a person is determined by his
mass and the acceleration of gravity,
The sensation of apparent weight comes from
the fact that we are supported from the floor,
chair, etc.
When body is in "free fall (accelerating
downward at the acceleration of gravity) then
the body is not being supported.
Then we fill weightless

The feeling of "weightlessness" occurs when


There is no force of support on your body.
This can be achieved in several ways .Ex
Free fall as there is no support.
In a elevator if cable breaks
airplane coming down with acc =g
Satellite rotating around earth

Different sensations of apparent weight can occur


in elevator when it moves with
Zero acceleration (zero or constant speed):
No change in apparent weight
Accelerates upward: Apparent wt. increases
Accelerates downward: Apparent wt.
reduces
If the elevator cable breaks (free fall with
downward acceleration = g.): Weightlessness
is felt

Accn = 0
Velocity = 0
or constant
No change
in apparent
weight

When accelerating upwards

Floor support = Reaction of weight + support


force due to upward acceleration
Hence apparent weight is more

When accelerating downwards

Floor support = Reaction of weight - support to


accelerate you downward
Hence apparent weight is less

Elevator cable broken

F support = 0
Apparent weight = 0

Terminal velocity during free fall in air: When net


force is = 0 , downward velocity remain constant,
called terminal velocity

Air

Weight
force

Controlling terminal
velocity by
parachute

Earth gravitational
acceleration g does note
depend on mass of object
Hence an elephant & a
feather will take same time
to reach ground if there in no
resistance

End

Reference slides

Geostationary Satellites for Meteorology (and


Volcanology!)

http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/geo/
http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/satellite/
http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/volcano.html

Satellite Orbits and Energies


FM on m

GMm
mv 2
2 mar
r
r

GM
v
=
r

U g
m

The tangential velocity v needed for a


circular orbit depends on the gravitational
potential energy Ug of the satellite at the
radius of the orbit. The needed tangential
velocity v is independent of the mass m of
the satellite (provided m<<M).
Notice that to make v larger, you need to go
deeper into the gravity well, i.e., to a lower orbit
where Ug is larger and r is smaller.

Orbital Energetics
FM on m

mv 2 2 K

r
r
Ug
GMm
2
r
r

K 12 U g
The equation K = Ug is called The Virial Theorem. In
effect, it says that for a planet in orbit around the Sun, if you
turned its velocity by 90o, so that it pointed straight out of the
Solar System, you would have only half the kinetic energy needed
to escape the Suns gravity well.

Example:
The Total Energy of a Satellite
Show that the total energy of a satellite in a circular orbit around the
Earth is half of its gravitational potential energy.

1 2 GM E m
mv
2
r
GM E m mv 2
GM E
2

v
2
r
r
r

E K U

GM E m
1 GM E GM E m
E m

2
r
r
2r
GM E m
U
Although derived for this particular case, this is a
r
general result, and is called the Virial Theorem. The
1
E 2U
factor of is a consequence of the inverse square law.

g for a Solid Sphere


GM
r
g outside 2 r r R
r
GM r
r
ginside 3 r r R
R
Gravitational field of a solid uniform sphere
4
3
4
3

r3

r3
M '
M M 3
3
R
R
GM '
G
r 3
GMr
GM r
r
ginside 2 r 2 M 3 r 3 r 3 r
r
r
R
R
R

g for a Hollow Sphere


GM
r
g outside 2 r r R
r
r
ginside 0
rR
Gravitational field of a uniform spherical shell

m1 A1 r12
m m

2 so 21 22 and the forces cancel.


m2 A2 r2
r1
r2

Tides
Tidal forces can result in orbital locking,
where the moon always has the same face
towards the planet as does Earths Moon.
If a moon gets too close to a large planet,
the tidal forces can be strong enough to tear
the moon apart. This occurs inside the Roche
limit; closer to the planet we have rings, not
moons.

Tides

This figure illustrates a general tidal force on


the left, and the result of lunar tidal forces on
the Earth on the right.

Example:
The Orbiting Space Station
You are trying to view the International Space
Station (ISS), which travels in a roughly circular
orbit about the Earth.
If its altitude is 385 km above the Earths
surface, how long do you have to wait between
sightings?

2 r vT

M E m mv 2
Fg G 2
r
r

2 r
T

GM E 4 2 r 2

r
T2

4 2 3
r3
( RE h)3
T
r 2
2
GM E
GM E
GM E
(6375 km 385 km)3
T 2
5,528 s=92.1 min
(6.67 1011 N m 2 /kg 2 )(5.98 10 24 kg)

Measured weight in an accelerating Reference Frame


According to stationary observer

R
Man
in lift

mg

R is reaction force
= reading on scales

F = ma
Taking up as +ve

R - mg = ma

accel

R = m(g + a)
If a = 0 ==>

R = mg

normal weight

If a is +ve ==> R = m(g + a) weight increase


If a is -ve ==> R = m(g - a) weight decrease

Spring scales

According to traveller
R
mg

R is reaction force
= reading on scales
F = ma
R - mg = ma

BUT in his ref. frame a = 0!


so R = mg!!
How come he still sees R changing as lift accelerates?
Didnt we say the laws of physics do not depend on the
frame of reference?

Only if it is an inertial frame of reference!


The accelerating lift is NOT!

The Apple
& the Moon

F mg mr 2 mr (2 / T ) 2
T 2 r / g
The radius of the Moons orbit is RM=3.84x108 m. If T = 2[r/g] and
g=9.81 m/s2, then the Moons orbital period should be TM = 2[RM/g] =
2[(3.84x108 m)/(9.81 m/s2)] = 3.93 x 104 s = 11 hr.
However, the actual orbital period of the Moon is about 27.3 days =
2.36 x 106 s. How could this calculation be so badly off? (Weaker gravity?)
Lets use the Moons orbital period and calculate gM, the acceleration
due to Earths gravity at the orbit of the Moon.
gM = RM(2/T)2 = (3.84x108 m)[/(2.36x106 s)]2 = 2.72 x 10-3 m/s2
But an apple falls at gE = 9.81 m/s2. So lets try something. Well
calculate the product gR2 for an apple at the Earths surface and for the
Moon in orbit:
gMRM2=(2.72x10-3 m/s2)(3.84x108 m)2 = 4.01x1014 m3/s2
gERE2 = (9.81 m/s2)(6.37x106 m)2 = 3.98x1014 m3/s2
These products are essentially equal, because gravity falls off ~ 1/R 2.
The same gravitational force law affects the apple and the Moon.

The Apple
& the Moon

F mg mr 2 mr (2 / T ) 2
T 2 r / g
The radius of the Moons orbit is RM=3.84x108 m. If T = 2[r/g] and
g=9.81 m/s2, then the Moons orbital period should be TM = 2[RM/g] =
2[(3.84x108 m)/(9.81 m/s2)] = 3.93 x 104 s = 11 hr.
However, the actual orbital period of the Moon is about 27.3 days =
2.36 x 106 s. How could this calculation be so badly off? (Weaker gravity?)
Lets use the Moons orbital period and calculate gM, the acceleration
due to Earths gravity at the orbit of the Moon.
gM = RM(2/T)2 = (3.84x108 m)[/(2.36x106 s)]2 = 2.72 x 10-3 m/s2
But an apple falls at gE = 9.81 m/s2. So lets try something. Well
calculate the product gR2 for an apple at the Earths surface and for the
Moon in orbit:
gMRM2=(2.72x10-3 m/s2)(3.84x108 m)2 = 4.01x1014 m3/s2
gERE2 = (9.81 m/s2)(6.37x106 m)2 = 3.98x1014 m3/s2
These products are essentially equal, because gravity falls off ~ 1/R 2.
The same gravitational force law affects the apple and the Moon.

Example:
The Total Energy of a Satellite
Show that the total energy of a satellite in a circular orbit around the
Earth is half of its gravitational potential energy.

GM E m mv 2

2
r
r

v2

GM E
r

GM E m
1 GM E GM E m
E m

2
r
r
2r
GM E m
U
Although derived for this particular case, this is a
r
general result, and is called the Virial Theorem. The
1
E 2U
factor of is a consequence of the inverse square law.

Gravitational Lensing
Light will be bent by any
gravitational field; this can
be seen when we view a
distant galaxy beyond a
closer galaxy cluster.
This is called
gravitational lensing, and
many examples have been
found.

Gravitational Lensing

Tides
Usually we can treat planets, moons, and stars
as though they were point objects, but in fact
they are not.
When two large objects exert gravitational
forces on each other, the force on the near side
is larger than the force on the far side, because
the near side is closer to the other object.
This difference in gravitational force across
an object due to its size is called a tidal force.

Tides
Tidal forces can result in orbital locking,
where the moon always has the same face
towards the planet as does Earths Moon.
If a moon gets too close to a large planet,
the tidal forces can be strong enough to tear
the moon apart. This occurs inside the Roche
limit; closer to the planet we have rings, not
moons.

Tides

This figure illustrates a general tidal force on


the left, and the result of lunar tidal forces on
the Earth on the right.