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Centrifugal

force

Gravitational

force =

Vc

Escape velocity

Escape velocity

If we throw a object up such a velocity that

it goes out of earths gravity it velocity is

called escape velocity

It means that by the time its velocity

reduces to zero due to gravity it had

reached a point where earths gravitational

force is also is zero.

Hence the object will never return to earth

B

V=0

Fg=0

Throw a ball of (mass m) up

Initial velocity at point A = U,

and Gravitational force = Fg

Fg

Me = mass of

earth

v = u +(- gt )

B Fg=0

V=0

R

U

object & it will not return back

to earth

A

R

Fg =

(G ) ( Me m )

r2

Fg

Me = mass of

earth

escape velocity

v = u +(gt )

reach height 5 m

When we throw a ball up it KE

B

gets converted to PE

5m

KE at point A = PE at point B

U m/sec

A

R

Me = mass of

earth

PE at point B = m x 10 x 5 J

KE at point A = x m x U2 J

x m x U2 = m x 10 x 5

U2 = 2 x 10 x 5

U2 = 100

U = 10m/sec

B To throw object from point A on

earth to a point B in space we

have to do work against earth

gravitational force Fg

This can be calculated by formula

A

work = F x distance moved

R

Me = mass of

earth

increases

Consider a very small distance

dr

B

A

Fg

center

We assume that over this

distance Fg is constant as dr is

very small

Work done to lift ball from A

to B dw = Fg x dr

Escape velocity

B

Work done to lift ball from A

dr

B

A

to B dw = Fg x dr

every such small dr from A to B,

Fg

we will get net work

done

A

against gravity. Now

A

R

Me = mass of

earth

Fg = (G ) ( Me m )

r2

Calculations of

(G

)

(

Me

m

)

dw

dr

=

work done

r2

B

Using calculus we can add such

dr

B

A

for r changing from A to B .(B is

point at infinity where Fg =0 ).

A

R

Me = mass of

earth

PE at B = Work done from A to B

(G ) ( Me m ) J

=

R

(G

)

(

Me

m

)

J

2

m

U

=

B

R

2

x

(G

)

(

Me)

U2 =

R

24

-11

5.98

10

2

6.67

10

U2 =

U

(6.37 10 6 )

A

R

Me

U2 =

6.37

U2 = 12.52 10 7 = 125.2 10 6

U = 11.19 10 3 = 11200m/sec

different objects (Density is assumed to be

uniform)

g at equator & pole

Fg inside & outside a solid sphere

Fg inside & outside a shell

g at height h above earth

Lift problems

Drag force

g at equator = 9.780 m/sec2

g at pole

= 9.832 m/sec 2

Weight of body as measured by spring

balance(force due to earths gravitation)

increases from equator to pole but mass

remains same

6.351 10 6 meters at pole

6.378 10 6 meters at equator

different objects (Density is assumed to be

uniform)

g at equator & pole

Fg inside & outside a solid sphere

Fg inside & outside a shell

g at height h above earth

Lift problems

Drag force

Case 1. If a particle of mass m is located outside

a homogeneous solid sphere of

Case 2. If a particle of mass m is located inside a

homogeneous solid sphere of

the mass of the sphere were concentrated at its

center..

r

( R+ r )2

r

Fg

r

M = mass of inner

sphere

The net gravitational

force at poet Q due

to outer material of

main sphere is zero

Let the mass of the full sphere (radius R ) = M kg

Let mass of the inner sphere (radius r = M kg

F

Inner

Inner

sphere

sphere

Let the mass of the full sphere = M kg

Let mass of the inner sphere = M kg

F

Inner

sphere

Let the mass of the interior sphere = M kg

Let mass of the inner sphere = M kg

F

F

Inner

sphere

r

F = F x R

As r reduces F will reduce

At center of sphere

r = 0 hence F = 0

Gravitational force at

center of solid sphere is = 0

F

gr

r

(R+r)3

(As R<< r, R + r = r )

gr

R

r

r

Graph of gr for solid sphere

Fg = max, V = 0

+ve

Fg = 0

V = max

Fg

Fg = - max V = 0

ball in tunnel = 84 .3 min

Time for a satellite

to make full round

on surface of

earth will be also

84.3min

A transport system in a tunnel

between two cities A & B, using

this

One-way trip well about 42 min.

Precise calculation were done as

Earths density is not uniform.

Practical problems were

How to make frictionless tunnel,

Temperature inside earth is high

Magma will come out etc

different objects (Density is assumed to be

uniform)

g at equator & pole

Fg inside & outside a solid sphere

Fg inside & outside a shell

g at height h above earth

Lift problems

Drag force

uniform density

1 Particle located outside a spherical shell

2. If the particle is located inside the shell

Case 2

Case 1

Shell of

mass M

spherical shell of mass M at point P, the shell

attracts the particle as if the mass of the shell is

concentrated at its center

P in Fig ),the gravitational force acting on it = 0

Shell of mass

different objects (Density is assumed to be

uniform)

g at equator & pole

Fg inside & outside a solid sphere

Fg inside & outside a shell

g at height h above earth

Lift problems

Drag force

GM E

2

g (0)

9.83 m/s

2

RE

GM E

g ( h)

2

( RE h)

to the radius of the Earth, the decrease

in the acceleration of gravity is much

larger:

Radius of earth

= 6370km

GM E

g (r ) 2

r

to gravity of an object at the

altitude of the space shuttles

orbit, about 400 km above

the Earths surface?

Fg

GmM E

GM E

a

/m 2

2

m

r

r

(6.67 1011 m 2 /kg 2 )(5.98 10 24 kg)

2

8.70 m/s

6

2

(6.77 10 m)

km above the Earths surface, what is its period

of rotation

2 r vT

2 r

v

T

M E m mv 2

Fg G 2

r

r

GM E 4 2 r 2

r

T2

( RE h)

4

r

3

T

r 2

2

GM E

GM E

GM E

2

25 june

Apparent Weight

Your perception of your weight is based on

the contact forces between your body and

your surroundings.

If your surroundings

are accelerating,

your apparent

weight may be more

or less than your

actual weight.

Actual weight of a person is determined by his

mass and the acceleration of gravity,

The sensation of apparent weight comes from

the fact that we are supported from the floor,

chair, etc.

When body is in "free fall (accelerating

downward at the acceleration of gravity) then

the body is not being supported.

Then we fill weightless

There is no force of support on your body.

This can be achieved in several ways .Ex

Free fall as there is no support.

In a elevator if cable breaks

airplane coming down with acc =g

Satellite rotating around earth

in elevator when it moves with

Zero acceleration (zero or constant speed):

No change in apparent weight

Accelerates upward: Apparent wt. increases

Accelerates downward: Apparent wt.

reduces

If the elevator cable breaks (free fall with

downward acceleration = g.): Weightlessness

is felt

Accn = 0

Velocity = 0

or constant

No change

in apparent

weight

force due to upward acceleration

Hence apparent weight is more

accelerate you downward

Hence apparent weight is less

F support = 0

Apparent weight = 0

force is = 0 , downward velocity remain constant,

called terminal velocity

Air

Weight

force

Controlling terminal

velocity by

parachute

Earth gravitational

acceleration g does note

depend on mass of object

Hence an elephant & a

feather will take same time

to reach ground if there in no

resistance

End

Reference slides

Volcanology!)

http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/geo/

http://www.rap.ucar.edu/weather/satellite/

http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/volcano.html

FM on m

GMm

mv 2

2 mar

r

r

GM

v

=

r

U g

m

circular orbit depends on the gravitational

potential energy Ug of the satellite at the

radius of the orbit. The needed tangential

velocity v is independent of the mass m of

the satellite (provided m<<M).

Notice that to make v larger, you need to go

deeper into the gravity well, i.e., to a lower orbit

where Ug is larger and r is smaller.

Orbital Energetics

FM on m

mv 2 2 K

r

r

Ug

GMm

2

r

r

K 12 U g

The equation K = Ug is called The Virial Theorem. In

effect, it says that for a planet in orbit around the Sun, if you

turned its velocity by 90o, so that it pointed straight out of the

Solar System, you would have only half the kinetic energy needed

to escape the Suns gravity well.

Example:

The Total Energy of a Satellite

Show that the total energy of a satellite in a circular orbit around the

Earth is half of its gravitational potential energy.

1 2 GM E m

mv

2

r

GM E m mv 2

GM E

2

v

2

r

r

r

E K U

GM E m

1 GM E GM E m

E m

2

r

r

2r

GM E m

U

Although derived for this particular case, this is a

r

general result, and is called the Virial Theorem. The

1

E 2U

factor of is a consequence of the inverse square law.

GM

r

g outside 2 r r R

r

GM r

r

ginside 3 r r R

R

Gravitational field of a solid uniform sphere

4

3

4

3

r3

r3

M '

M M 3

3

R

R

GM '

G

r 3

GMr

GM r

r

ginside 2 r 2 M 3 r 3 r 3 r

r

r

R

R

R

GM

r

g outside 2 r r R

r

r

ginside 0

rR

Gravitational field of a uniform spherical shell

m1 A1 r12

m m

m2 A2 r2

r1

r2

Tides

Tidal forces can result in orbital locking,

where the moon always has the same face

towards the planet as does Earths Moon.

If a moon gets too close to a large planet,

the tidal forces can be strong enough to tear

the moon apart. This occurs inside the Roche

limit; closer to the planet we have rings, not

moons.

Tides

the left, and the result of lunar tidal forces on

the Earth on the right.

Example:

The Orbiting Space Station

You are trying to view the International Space

Station (ISS), which travels in a roughly circular

orbit about the Earth.

If its altitude is 385 km above the Earths

surface, how long do you have to wait between

sightings?

2 r vT

M E m mv 2

Fg G 2

r

r

2 r

T

GM E 4 2 r 2

r

T2

4 2 3

r3

( RE h)3

T

r 2

2

GM E

GM E

GM E

(6375 km 385 km)3

T 2

5,528 s=92.1 min

(6.67 1011 N m 2 /kg 2 )(5.98 10 24 kg)

According to stationary observer

R

Man

in lift

mg

R is reaction force

= reading on scales

F = ma

Taking up as +ve

R - mg = ma

accel

R = m(g + a)

If a = 0 ==>

R = mg

normal weight

If a is -ve ==> R = m(g - a) weight decrease

Spring scales

According to traveller

R

mg

R is reaction force

= reading on scales

F = ma

R - mg = ma

so R = mg!!

How come he still sees R changing as lift accelerates?

Didnt we say the laws of physics do not depend on the

frame of reference?

The accelerating lift is NOT!

The Apple

& the Moon

F mg mr 2 mr (2 / T ) 2

T 2 r / g

The radius of the Moons orbit is RM=3.84x108 m. If T = 2[r/g] and

g=9.81 m/s2, then the Moons orbital period should be TM = 2[RM/g] =

2[(3.84x108 m)/(9.81 m/s2)] = 3.93 x 104 s = 11 hr.

However, the actual orbital period of the Moon is about 27.3 days =

2.36 x 106 s. How could this calculation be so badly off? (Weaker gravity?)

Lets use the Moons orbital period and calculate gM, the acceleration

due to Earths gravity at the orbit of the Moon.

gM = RM(2/T)2 = (3.84x108 m)[/(2.36x106 s)]2 = 2.72 x 10-3 m/s2

But an apple falls at gE = 9.81 m/s2. So lets try something. Well

calculate the product gR2 for an apple at the Earths surface and for the

Moon in orbit:

gMRM2=(2.72x10-3 m/s2)(3.84x108 m)2 = 4.01x1014 m3/s2

gERE2 = (9.81 m/s2)(6.37x106 m)2 = 3.98x1014 m3/s2

These products are essentially equal, because gravity falls off ~ 1/R 2.

The same gravitational force law affects the apple and the Moon.

The Apple

& the Moon

F mg mr 2 mr (2 / T ) 2

T 2 r / g

The radius of the Moons orbit is RM=3.84x108 m. If T = 2[r/g] and

g=9.81 m/s2, then the Moons orbital period should be TM = 2[RM/g] =

2[(3.84x108 m)/(9.81 m/s2)] = 3.93 x 104 s = 11 hr.

However, the actual orbital period of the Moon is about 27.3 days =

2.36 x 106 s. How could this calculation be so badly off? (Weaker gravity?)

Lets use the Moons orbital period and calculate gM, the acceleration

due to Earths gravity at the orbit of the Moon.

gM = RM(2/T)2 = (3.84x108 m)[/(2.36x106 s)]2 = 2.72 x 10-3 m/s2

But an apple falls at gE = 9.81 m/s2. So lets try something. Well

calculate the product gR2 for an apple at the Earths surface and for the

Moon in orbit:

gMRM2=(2.72x10-3 m/s2)(3.84x108 m)2 = 4.01x1014 m3/s2

gERE2 = (9.81 m/s2)(6.37x106 m)2 = 3.98x1014 m3/s2

These products are essentially equal, because gravity falls off ~ 1/R 2.

The same gravitational force law affects the apple and the Moon.

Example:

The Total Energy of a Satellite

Show that the total energy of a satellite in a circular orbit around the

Earth is half of its gravitational potential energy.

GM E m mv 2

2

r

r

v2

GM E

r

GM E m

1 GM E GM E m

E m

2

r

r

2r

GM E m

U

Although derived for this particular case, this is a

r

general result, and is called the Virial Theorem. The

1

E 2U

factor of is a consequence of the inverse square law.

Gravitational Lensing

Light will be bent by any

gravitational field; this can

be seen when we view a

distant galaxy beyond a

closer galaxy cluster.

This is called

gravitational lensing, and

many examples have been

found.

Gravitational Lensing

Tides

Usually we can treat planets, moons, and stars

as though they were point objects, but in fact

they are not.

When two large objects exert gravitational

forces on each other, the force on the near side

is larger than the force on the far side, because

the near side is closer to the other object.

This difference in gravitational force across

an object due to its size is called a tidal force.

Tides

Tidal forces can result in orbital locking,

where the moon always has the same face

towards the planet as does Earths Moon.

If a moon gets too close to a large planet,

the tidal forces can be strong enough to tear

the moon apart. This occurs inside the Roche

limit; closer to the planet we have rings, not

moons.

Tides

the left, and the result of lunar tidal forces on

the Earth on the right.

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