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# Nomenclature

Nomenclature

Principal axis

Optical centre

Sign convention

## All distances on the principal axis are

measured from the optical centre.
All distances measured in the direction of
incident rays are positive
All the distances measured in the direction
opposite to that of the incident rays are
negative.
All distances measured above the principal
axis are positive. Thus, height of an object and
that of an erect image are positive
all distances measured below the principal axis
are negative

## All distances are measured from the optical

centre & principal axis
Incident ray direction

- ve direction
Distances measured
in the apposite
direction of incident
rays are negative

+ ve direction

+ ve direction
All distances
measured in the
direction of incident
rays are positive

## All distances are measured from the optical

centre & principal axis

distances measured
above the principal
axis are positive.

- ve direction

distances measured
bellow the principal
axis are negative

u
Principal axis

f
Let AB be a object placed at right angles to the
principal axis at a distance > focal length .
The image A1B1 is formed between O and F1
on the same side as the object is kept
The image is erect and virtual.

u
v

## OF1 = Focal length = - f

(- ve)

OA = CB = Object distance = - u

(-ve)

## OA1 = Image distance = -v

(-ve)

From diagram at
OC = AB

----- 2

And

----- 2
From

Now

Dividing throughout by uvf

B1

## Let AB be an object placed at right angles to

the principal axis at a distance greater than
the focal length f of the convex lens.
The image A1B1 is formed beyond 2F2 and
is real and inverted.

OA = Object distance = - u
OA1 = Image distance = + v
OF2 = Focal length
= +f

B1

are similar

B1

are similar

But OC = AB

B1

And

are similar

B1

## Triangle OAB and OA1B1

are similar

Dividing equation
throughout by uvf

B1

Mirror formula

## Since all distances are measured from P

CB = PB PC And CB = PC PB
Now

## Using the sign convention,

PB = - U (object distance)
PC = - R
PB = - V (Image distance)
On substitution

UV - VR = UR- UV
UR + VR = 2UV

UR + VR = 2UV
Dividing both sides by UVR, we have

For ALL
mirrors
For ALL
Lenses
U= object distance , V = image distance

## Linear magnification is ratio of the size of

the image to the size of the object.

Note:
If m>1, image is enlarged.
If m <1, image is diminished.
If m is +ve , image is erect and virtual.
If m is -ve, image is inverted and real.

Refraction

## Principle of reversibility of light

The path of light is reversible.

## According to Snell's law : Ration of sin i / sin r is

constant for a frequency & two mediums

## Refractive index of medium 2

with respect to medium 1
Light travels from
medium 1 to medium 2

V1
=
V2

According to the
principle of
reversibility
&

or

## From the above relation it is clear that the

refractive index of the second medium with
respect to the first medium is the reciprocal of
the refractive index of the first medium with
respect to the second.

## If the medium 1 is air or vacuum, the refractive

index of medium 2 is referred to as the absolute
refractive index.

2
glass = Refractive index of

air

Vacuum
Glass

glass = V

/ Vg

## Similarly, when light travels from air /vacuum

to medium 1 & 2, we can write
i
1
1

V1
=
V2

## Thus the relative refractive index between a

pair of media is the ratio of their absolute
refractive indices. While the absolute
refractive index of any material medium is
always greater than unity, its relative
refractive index may be greater or lesser than
unity.

## In general, if a ray of light is passing

from medium 1 to medium 2, then
The refractive index depends on the following
factors:
the nature of the mediums
the color or wave length of the incident light

## Different colors have different wavelength,

Their 's are also different.
Red light has a longer wavelength than violet
So red < violet. This means violet deviates by
a larger angle than red light.
This is one of the reasons to have red light
signals

Cause of Dispersion
The refractive index of prism depends
on wavelength according to cauchys
relation namely.

structure etc

## Fundamental flaw in lens images:

They are seen predominantly when we enlarge
image as in microscope when
Chromatic aberration
Spherical aberration
Field Curvature
Astigmatism aberrations
Geometrically distorted image etc

## Chromatic aberration during refraction

Spherical aberration

Multiple focus

Spherical aberration
Idial focus for ideal thin lens

## Ideal image without spherical abrasion

Good image

Distorted image

Aberration present

Aberration corrected

Field Curvature

Microscope image
Astigmatism aberrations Distorted
Clear image
image
offset
object on
object
principle
position
axis

Correct image

distorted
image

## Human eye has a substantial amount of

chromatic aberration.
Fortunately, we are able to compensate for this
effect when the brain processes images,
but it is possible to demonstrate the aberration
using a small purple dot on a piece of paper.
When held close to the eye, the purple dot will
appear blue at the centre surrounded by a red
halo.
As the paper is moved farther away, the dot will
appear red surrounded by a blue halo.

Combination of lenses

Combination of lenses

## lens errors are corrected by

Combination of different type of lens
Lenses of different materials

## Combination of crown glass and flint glass

They have different refractive index
the blue rays and the red rays can get a
common focus.
This combination is termed a lens doublet
or achromatic lenses or achromats
This is the most widely used lens and is
commonly found on laboratory
microscopes.
But all colours are not corrected

Chromatic aberration
effect can be minimized
by using combination of
lenses of different
materials (Called
Achromatic doublet)

Aromatic doublet

Aromatic
doublet

## Combination of lens thickness, curvature,

refractive index, reduce chromatic aberration by
bringing two colours at common focus.
If fluorspar + glass lens or a fluorspar lens is
used, then 3 colours red, green, and blue can be
brought into a single focus minimising chromatic
aberration
Fluorspar (halide mineral composed of
calcium fluoride, CaF2).
Fluorspar due to their strong hexagonal
crystal structure show even refraction for all
colours light.

Apochromatic lenses
They contains two lens
doublets and a lens
triplet for correction of
both chromatic and
spherical aberrations
They are used to build
high-quality chromatic
aberration-free
microscope

O
v

## Two thin lenses L1 and L2 of focal lengths f1

and f2 be placed in contact so as to have a
common principal axis.
Let O be a point object on the principal axis.
The refractions by two thin lenses L1 and L2 of
focal lengths f1 and f2 be placed in contact so
as to have a common principal axis.

Converging lens

Point of contact
of two lenses
I

O
v

## Since the lenses are thin, as approximation

all distances can measured from the centre
of the lens system (point of contact of two
lenses

O
v

## The image I' due to the first lens L 1 acts on the

virtual object for the second lens.L 2
Let the final image be formed at I, at a distance
v from the centre of the lens system.
Writing the lens equation separately,

I
Final
image

O
v

## For L1, O = object, U = Object distance (-ve)

I = Image V = Image distance (+ve)
For L2, I = object, V = Object distance
I = Image V = Image distance

O
v

## For L1: U is - ve,

V is +ve ,
f1 is +ve
Putting these values in above equation we get

I Virtual I
object
v
for L2

U

## For L2: Object distance U = V (+ve)

Image distance = V (+ve)
Focal
length
= f1lens
(+ve)
Putting these
values
in above
equation
------- (II)
2

&
2

'

## Let us replace two lenses by a single lens with

focus f giving the same effect
i.e., for an object at O forms image at V.
Then
Such a lens is called an equivalent lens and its
focal length is called the equivalent focal
length.

## Power of lens is defined as P = 1/ f.

where f is expressed in meters
It is called diopter & lts units are m-1
Ex A lens with a focal length of -20 cm
has a power of-5.0 diopters.
Powers are often used to describe eye
glass lenses
Power of combination of two thin lens is
P = P1+P2 , where P1 & P2 are power of
individual lens

## Convex Spherical Refracting Surface

Convex refracting
surface

Parts of Sphere of
transparent refracting
material
= Absolute refractive
index

P = pole
C = center of

## Concave Spherical Refracting Surface

Concave refracting
surface

P = pole
C = center of
curvature

Absolute refractive
index

Parts of Sphere of
refracting material

## Assumption: In dealing with refraction at

spherical refracting surface
The object to be a point lying on the principal
axis of the spherical refracting surface.
The aperture (0pening for light) of the
spherical refracting surface is small
The incident and refracted rays make small
angles with the principal axis of the surface
sign convention remain same

## Formula for Refraction :

Rarer to Denser Medium
(Convex Spherical
Surface
2

u
R

## Formula for Refraction :

Rarer to Denser Medium
(Concave Spherical
Surface

## Lens maker formula

To make a lens of given focal length we need
relation between
Refractive index of the lens material
Refractive index of surroundings.
Such a relation is called lens maker formula

## Lens maker formula

Flowing assumptions made for the derivation of
these formula:
The lens is thin, so that distances
measured from the poles of its surfaces are
almost equal as equal to the distances from
the optical centre of the lens.
The aperture of the lens is small.
Point object is considered.

## Lens maker formula

END

.i = incident angle

OA

y
a
r
t
n
e
d
inci

Object

XY=spherical surface
r = angle of refraction

AI re
fr

acte
d

ray

Image

## Sum of exterior angles

= interior angles

r+ =

r = -
.i = +

## Remember lim of sin / =1 as tends to 0

For small angles sin & Tan Sin

## Sum of exterior angles

= interior angles
r+ =
r = -
.i = +

## Using the sign convention, we put

PO = -u , PI = +v, PC = R
or

## For the virtual image, the point lies close to

the pole of refracting surface. In this case the
refracted rays PC and AB do not meet
actually at any point but appear to come
from a point I as shown below.

## Refraction from denser to rarer medium

at a concave spherical refracting surface