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FAMILIARIZATION

OF

THERMAL POWER PLANT


WITH

CFBC BOILER

THERMAL POWER PLANT


A thermal power plant works on the principle
of RANKINE CYCLE

RANKINE CYCLE
An ideal Rankine cycle involves four processes:
(1-2): Isentropic Compression in pump

(2-3): Constant pressure heat addition in Boiler;

(3-4): Isentropic expansion in Turbine;


(4-1):

Constant

Condenser

pressure

heat

rejection

in

According to the processes the power plant is


divided into boundaries:

Demineralization plant
Coal Handling plant
Circulating water and Make up water pump House
Compressed air system
Boiler
Turbine
Generator and Transmission system
Electrostatic Precipitator
Ash Handling System

Need of De-mineralized water


In power plant water is heated at high pressures and
temperatures, this causes the salts in the water to form the
precipitate or scales.
The water in power plant has to pass through a large number
of tubes whose internal diameters are small.
When the non treated water is passed through them scales
will be formed which obstruct the water or steam flow
causing the failure of tubes.
So the water is to be De-mineralized.

Demineralization Plant (DM Plant)


De mineralization is a process of removing undesirable minerals
and converting raw water to Soft water and make suitable for
Industrial purposes
RAW WATER

MULTI GRADE FILTER

CLARIFLOCCULATOR

ACTIVATED CARBON
FILTER

WATER RESERVOIR

STRONG ACID CATION


EXCHANGER

DEGASSER

STRONG ACID ANION


EXCHANGER

DM WATER TANK

COAL HANDLING PLANT


NBEIL Coal Handling System is Designed for 450 TPH and
consisting of two no. of streams, named as Stream A and
Stream-B.
Each stream is designed for 450 TPH, one is working and
other is standby. Each stream consist three ground hoppers.
Each ground hopper is of 70 MT in capacity. The Feed size of
ROM (run of mine) Coal is -450 mm(Max.) and system product
size is -6 mm for feeding to the Boiler coal bunkers

PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF STREAM-A

COOLING AND MAKEUP WATER PUMP HOUSE


Cooling Water pump House contains 3 Circulating Water Pumps, 2
Auxiliary Cooling Water pumps, Cooling Towers, Cooling Water Fans.
Makeup water pump house contains Makeup water pump and a RCC
reservoir
The discharge from CW pumps goes to:
Condenser
Lube oil coolers
Vacuum Pumps
Vapor Absorption Machine (VAM)
EH oil coolers
The discharge of ACW pumps go to:
Generator Air Coolers
EH oil coolers
Boiler feed pumps for gland seal cooling and for oil coolers
Condensate extraction pumps for bearing cooling
All fans and blowers in Boiler
All compressors
ACs
Sample coolers

COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM


The compressed air is used in various applications in power industry.
For this four main air compressors (two stage double acting
compressors) are installed. The discharge of this compressor is divided
as service air and instrument air.
In the instrumentation control valves, shut off valves, oxygen analyzer
needs the compressed air which should be free from moisture and
foreign particles for this purpose the discharge of main air compressor is
sent to air drying unit.
Air drying unit is the equipment in which the moisture from air is
removed with the help of silica gel. Once this silica gel absorbs
maximum moisture, it is removed by heating the silica gel with hot air.

BOILER
A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be
transferred to water until it becomes heated water or steam. The hot water or
steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process.
Water is a useful and inexpensive medium for transferring heat to a process.
When water at atmospheric pressure is boiled into steam its volume increases
about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder.
This causes the boiler to be equipment that must be treated with utmost care.
The various types of boilers are Fire tube boiler, Water tube boiler,
Packaged boiler, Fluidized bed combustion boiler, Stoker fired boiler, Pulverized
fuel boiler, Waste heat boiler and Thermic fluid heater.

FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION


When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid
particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As
air velocity is gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended
in the air stream the bed is called fluidized. With further increase in air velocity, there is bubble
formation, vigorous turbulence, rapid mixing and formation of dense defined bed surface. The
bed of solid particles exhibits the properties of a boiling liquid and assumes the appearance of a
fluid bubbling fluidized bed. At higher velocities, bubbles disappear, and particles are blown
out of the bed.
There are three basic types of fluidized bed combustion boilers:
1. Atmospheric classic Fluidized Bed Combustion System (AFBC)
2. Atmospheric circulating (fast) Fluidized Bed Combustion system (CFBC)
3. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion System (PFBC).

CFBC BOILER

Boiler at NBEIL

CFBC boiler mainly comprises of the following components:


1. Combustor,
2. Cyclone,
3. Seal pot / J- Seal,
4. Bed ash Handling system,
5. Coal feeding system
6. Coal Bunkers
7. Drag chain feeders
8. Coal conveying feeders
9. Bed material bunker,
10.Lime stone bunker,
11.Startup burners

Boiler at NBEIL
The mountings of the boiler are:
Water level gauge - 2
Continuous blow down - 2 and intermittent blow down - 1
Safety valves 8 (2 on Steam Drum, 2 on Main Steam Header, 2 on Cold Re-heat
Header, 2 on Hot Re-heat Header)
Feed check valve - 1
Man holes - 17
The accessories of the boiler are:
Air pre-heater
Economizer 2 (High Temperature and Low Temperature Economizer)
Super heaters
Re-heater
Boiler feed pumps - 3
The boiler contains the following circuits:
Air and flue gas circuit
Coal and ash circuit
Water and steam circuit

TURBINE
The turbine is the equipment which converts the Steam energy into mechanical
energy. NBEIL employed super high pressure intermediate reheat single axle
impulse type double casing and double exhaust steam turbine from Dong Fang
Power Systems, China.
For the proper running of turbine system many equipment have to work. The major
equipment are:
Condenser
Vacuum Pump
Condensate Extraction Pump
Gland Steam Cooler
Regenerative system
Vapor Absorption Machine
Boiler feed pumps
Lubrication system
Electro Hydraulic System

REHEAT AND REGENARATIVE SYSTEM IN


TURBINE

GENERATOR AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM


Generator is the device used to convert the mechanical energy into electrical
energy.
Cooling system:
For cooling the generator the air cooling is employed. There are series of fans in
parallel rows under the generator; these fans take air from surroundings which get
cooled by circulating in the coolers through which ACW is circulating.
220 KV Switchyard:
220 KV Switchyard is conventional outdoor open air insulated. The switch yard have
two main buses with One Bus Coupler switching scheme for the evacuation of
power. The electric power generated at 15.75 KV level of GT is stepped up to 220
KV via Generator transformer and exported to grid at 220KV level. There are two
out going lines, line-1 & line-2 connected to Budidhampadu substation which is
about 61 km from power plant.

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
Thermal power plants are based on coal as fuel. Coal consists of some percentage
of ash, Sox, and Nox gases in which flow into atmosphere should be controlled
within hygiene, pollution free and comfort before the gas is released into
atmosphere. For the control of dust, mainly the ash particles from combustion of
coal in Boilers, Electrostatic Precipitator is often used.
Electrostatic precipitator is electric equipment where a DC voltage is imparted
through emitting electrodes creating an electrical field around it. The dust particle
carried by the gas while passing through the field is charged to saturation and
migrates towards the collecting electrode usually in the form of plate curtain where
they deposit in layers. By suitable ramming dust is dislodged in to the hopper.

ASH HANDLING SYSTEM

The coal burnt in the boiler contains bed ash and fly ash. There is continuous generation of
bed ash and fly ash as there is continuous feeding of coal. For the fluidization to occur the
bed ash should be drained continuously for this purpose four bed ash coolers and one
emergency drain are installed. The fly ash collected in the electro static precipitator (ESP)
hoppers should be conveyed to fly ash silo for this three ash handling compressors (single
stage double acting compressors) are installed.
The bed ash handling system comprises the following
Bed drain pipes
Bed ash coolers
Drag chain conveyor
Bucket Elevator
Silo
Ash conditioner & Rotary vane feeder.

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