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Source which are useful to human.

Renewable : source that can be
regenerate. Eg: soil, water etc.
1. Continuous resources: eg. solar energy
2. Extrinsic resources: available
continuously if well managed
. Non- Renewable: source that cannot be
regenerate. Eg: Minerals, coals etc.

Forest Resources
It is renewable natural resources.
It provide wood, coal, fuel, save from landslides etc.
Types of forests:
1.Evergreen : found in equatorial region, here rain fall is very
high. Eg: silent valley in Kerala.
2.Deciduous forests :
a)Tropical deciduous: found in tropical monsoon, only
seasonal rain fall.
b)Temperature deciduous: heavy winter with snowfall.
3.Coniferous forest: needle type leaves preserve moisture.
Functions of Forest:
) Recycle rainwater and remove pollution from air
) Control water quality
) Maintain temperature
) Prevent soil erosion
) Aesthetic beauty

Benefits of forests
Commercial Uses: Fuel, medicines, Paper, timber,
gyms, honey, grazing etc.
Ecological Uses:
production of oxygen
Reducing global warming: absorb CO2 .
Prevent soil erosion
Home for wild life
Pollution moderators: absorb toxic gases and
prevent noise pollution.
Aesthetic Value: to create hut, basket etc.
Touristic Value: can be used as tourist place, so it
give income.

Over Exploitation of forest

Due to population growth, needs are get
So forest materials are exploited to prepare food,
medicine, wood, fuel etc.
Reason In India:
increase in demand for wood
increase in Industrial activity
increase in agricultural production
Over exploitation lead to migration of farmers
Environmental damage like soil erosion
Plant species and animals are endangered
Less rain fall


Removal of forest resources.

Causes of Deforestation in India:
1. Developmental Projects:
Road constructions.
Submergence of forest area.
Dam constructions.
2. Mining Operation: extraction of mining product
reduce forest area.
3. Raw material for industries
4. Fuel requirement
5. Forest fire
Global warming
Soil erosion
Loss of biodiversity: vanish of some species.
Loss of food grains
Flood and landslides

Prevention (Or) Control

Plant more or equal trees before cutting trees.

Use of wood fuel should be discouraged

Over grassing should be controlled.
Education and awareness
Strict implementation of forest law
Deforestation in Himalaya region:
cleaning natural forest and planting monocultures like
So soil loss its fertility.
Chhota Nagpur Tea garden:
Deforestation in Nagpur reduced rainfall.
So tea gardens are disappeared in that region

Timber Extraction
Increase in population growth need more fuel.
Wood, paper, furniture etc. need various wood
Railways, boat etc.
Large scale timbers cause deforestation.
Soil erosion, land slides etc.
Reduce forest area.
Used to store water.
It destroy vast area of forest
Dam construction kills animals
Reduce fertility lands

Extracting resource from earth like coal, fuel etc.
These are find in forest region, so extraction of these effect forest.
1. Surface Mining: mining of mineral from shallow deposit.
2. Underground mining: mining of mineral from deep deposit.
3. Exploration: finding mineral location
4. Development
5. Exploitation : extraction
6. Ore process: separation
7. Purification
8. Mining leads to soil pollution, deforestation, land slides noise
pollution etc.
9. Mining operation cause vibration which leads to earthquake
10. Water pollution cause when discharge of waste minerals in water.
11. Migration of people

Water Resources
Important component of living beings.
80% of earth covered with water.
Water exists in three forms, solid, liquid and gas.
1. Evaporation: heat energy from sun which converts liquid phase
water to gases phase.
2. Condensation & Precipitation :
Condensation: change of water from its gaseous form into liquid
Precipitation: atmospheric water vapour that falls under gravity.
Forms ofprecipitationinclude drizzle, rain etc.
3. Transpiration & Respiration :
Transpiration: moisture is carried through plants from roots to
pores on the underside of leaves.It is evaporation of water from plant
Respiration: convert the sugars into energy. It shows
photosynthesis are combined with oxygen releasing energy, carbon
dioxide, and water.

Types of fresh water resources

Different Ways of water usage:

1.Consumptive use: completely utilized and not reused eg: irrigation
2.Non-Consumptive use: not completely utilized and reused eg:
hydropower plant
3.Other use: - drinking, cooking, washing etc.
- hotels, institutions, offices etc.
- agriculture
- Industries

Over Utilization of Water

Increase in population and industrial growth have
demand water resource.
1. Decrease in ground water.
2. Ground subsidence: withdraw of water is more
than recharge rate.
3. Lowering of water table: disturb hydrological
4. Earthquake and landslides
5. Drying up of wells
6. Pollution of water

Dams- Benefits and

Dam used to store water

1. Control flood
2. Drinking and agricultural purpose
3. Generate electricity
4. Store water
5. Deforestation
6. high cost
7. Displacement of tribal peoples
8. Structural problem can destroy living organisms
9. Hydropower plants can cause low dissolved

Mineral Resources