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hydrogen fuel cell battery

Presented By
Aman Raikwar

Guided By
Prof P.D.R Patnaik

Content

Battery
Types of battery
Introduction to fuel cell
How do fuel cell work
Types of hydrogen fuel cell
Alkaline fuel cell
Working of PEM hydrogen fuel cell
Hydrogen fuel cell and redox reaction
Why fuel cell
Hydrogen fuel cell and efficiency ,environment ,nuclear
energy
Application and challenges ahead
conclusion

What is Battery ?
Battery is a energy storing device.
Batteries operate by converting chemical energy into electrical energy
through electrochemical discharge reactions.
Batteries are composed of one or more cells, each containing a positive
electrode, negative electrode, separator, and electrolyte.
Basically batteries undergo chemical reaction known as redox reaction.
Anode, it involves the Cells's Oxidation Half-Reaction and produces
electrons.
Cathode, it involves the Cells's Reduction Half-Reaction, consuming
electrons.
The cathodic half-cell is producing an excess of positive ions and the
anodic half-cell is depleting them. This imbalance within both half-cells is
rectified by adding a electrolyte to the Cell.

Types of battery
Primary cell or non-rechargeable batteries
A primary cell batteries are designed to be used once and
discarded, and not recharged with electricity

Secondary or rechargeable batteries


A secondary battery is a type of electrical battery which can

be charged, discharged into load and recharged many times

INTRODUCTION TO FUEL CELLS


A Fuel Cell is an Electrochemical device that produces electricity.
Unlike a battery the reaction is sustained as long as the cell is being
supplied by fuel.
The reaction happens at relatively low temperatures, and no combustion
takes place in the fuel cell.
In the Fuel cell the hydrogen is the primary fuel. When the hydrogen is
introduced a chemical reaction between hydrogen and air produces
electricity, pure water and some heat.

How Do Fuel Cells Work?

REDOX REACTION
oxidation
reduction

CATALYSTS (rate of reaction)

ELECTROLYTE

TYPES OF HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS

ALKALINE FUEL CELLS


aka: bacon fuel cell

PEM FUEL CELLS


proton exchange membrane (or proton electrolyte membrane)

Alkaline Fuel Cells


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Hydrogen
Electron flow
Load
Oxygen
Cathode
Electrolyte
Anode
Water
Hydroxyl ions

How Hydrogen Fuel Cells Work


PEM

Proton exchange membrane cells


A fuel cell produced electricity by combining Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms
electrochemically rather than through combustion
Hydrogen = fuel electrolysis stored as a compressed gas/liquid/metal
compound
A single fuel cell consists of an anode and a cathode with an electrolyte in
between
Hydrogen molecules enter the anode react with catalysts (1) split into
H+ & e- H+ pass through electrolyte, e- directed through an external circuit
= electrical current
Oxygen molecules enter at the cathode + H + + e- water & heat
Individual fuel cells placed in a series = fuel cell stack power vehicle

HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS


& REDOX REACTION
Alkaline Fuel Cells

PEM Fuel Cells

Anode, H2 is oxidized:
H2 + 2OH- 2H2O + 2eH2 2H+ + 2eElectrons flow through an external circuit and return to the cathode,
reducing oxygen:
O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O

Why Fuel Cells?


Termed the Micro chip of the energy industry
Reasonable to expect almost every power producing device in the world
to be replaced by fuel cell devices in the next 50-80 years.
Market potential is in the Trillions for such an endeavor.
Two important Advantages of fuel cells is that they produce no pollution
emissions or greenhouse gases, do not require supplies of foreign oil.
Needs Hydrogen and Oxygen, and emits water.
Biologically Friendly, Slow down the pollution, and begin to change the
destruction.

HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS


& EFFICIENCY
Automobile internal combustion engines
inefficient 25%
Rechargeable batteries (modified lead-acid, nickel-cadmium
batteries)
Run down quickly 250 Km
Recharged from external electrical source
Takes hours
Fuel cells
Efficient 80%

HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS & THE


ENVIRONMENT
Automobile engines: gasoline = pollutants
CO2, Nox, VOCs
health & environmental problems: smog, greenhouse effect
Electric cars: hydrogen fuel cells = pollution free
Cleaner, quieter, more efficient
Product: water vapour
Production of hydrogen fuel unnatural resource
Hydrocarbon fuels (petroleum, methane) = pollution
Electrolysis of water powered by solar energy or hydroelectricity
= low pollution
Renewable energy source

Hydrogen Fuel Cell And Nuclear Energy


Most hydrogen production at present comes from natural gas or coal
On a much smaller scale, some production comes from a cleaner process
called electrolysis
nuclear power plants are ideal for hydrogen production
Future plants, designed specifically for hydrogen production

APPLICATION
The Fuel Cell produces electricity directly from hydrogen fuel, it can be
used for anything that uses power in the form of electricity, rotary
power or heat.
They can be made to be small enough to power a cellular phone or large
enough to power a town. The benefit is that the design of the system
does not change.
Therefore the markets for fuel cells is virtually unlimited.
Fuel cell powered cars

CHALLENGES AHEAD.
The cost to make the systems, the cost of development and adaptation.
The catalysts require expensive precious-metal catalysts, and others
need to be resistant to very high temperatures.
Durability and Dependability, the high temperatures cells are prone to
breakdown, need effective water management systems to operate
efficiently.
Fuel Issues:
Production
Delivery
Storage
Safety
Public Acceptance, and consumer embrace of the products.

Conclusion
Hydrogen fuel cell is good replaceable option over gasoline
engine
Pollution free
More efficient

References
(Srensen), B. S. (2005).Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Emerging
Technologies and Applications (Sustainable World). Toronto: Academic
Press.
Harkin, T., & Hoffmann, P. (2001). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel
Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. London: The Mit Press.
Holland, G., & Provenzano, J. (2007). Hydrogen Age, The. Layton:
Gibbs Smith, Publisher.
Collecting the History of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.
(n.d.). National Museum of American History. Retrieved April 20, 2010,
from http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/basics.htm