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Communication is an art of transmitting

information, ideas and attitude from one

person to another. Communication is the
process of meaningful interactions among
human being.

Generally, people retain

10% of what they READ
20% of what they HEAR
30% of what they SEE
50% of what they SEE and HEAR
70% of what they SAY
90% of what they SAY and DO

G a m e to
importance o

For transmitting effective written or oral

messages, Certain principles must be

followed. These principles are advocated by
Francis J. Bergin provide guidelines for choice
of content and style of presentation adapted
to the purpose of the receiver of the message.
They are also called the seven Cs of


Communication is a two-way process of giving

and receiving information through any
number of channels. Whether one is speaking
informally to a colleague, addressing a
conference or meeting, writing a newsletter
article or formal report, the following basic
principles apply

Five Principles of
Communication is transactional because it
involves an exchange.
If I go to the store to get a coke, I exchange

money to the cashier for the coke. I give

something and get something in return.
Communication is the same you have to give
and receive for communication to happen.

Five Principles of
Communication is complex for several reasons.
It is interactive because many processes are involved.
It is symbolic because symbols are open to interpretation.
It is personal & cultural because a persons culture can

add a new or different meaning to a phrase or gesture.

It is irreversible because once a message is sent, it cannot
be taken back.
It is circular because it involves both original messages
and feedback which is necessary to confirm
It is purposeful because there is always a reason behind a
message and it helps meet our needs.
It is impossible to duplicate because each interaction is

Five Principles of
Communication is unavoidable because it is
impossible to not communicate.
You are communicating constantly even when

you do not intend to communicate. You

communicate by the way you sit or move, by
the way you speak, by what you wear, by your
actions. Even when you sleep in class, youre
communicating that you are bored or that you
dont care.

Five Principles of
Communication is continuous because it

continues to impact and influence future

interactions and shape our relationships.
Have you ever gotten off to a wrong start with

someone? Has it taken a lot of time to perhaps

overcome someones negative opinion of you?
Has someone ever said something to you that
hurt your feelings and youve always
remembered it and think about it when you see
that person?

Five Principles of
Communication skills can be learned because
they can always be improved.
You may need to work on speaking skills,

written communication, listening, relationship

skills theres always room for improvement!


Know your audience.

Know your purpose.
Group profile

Know your topic.

Anticipate objections.
Achieve credibility with your audience.
Follow through on what you say.
Communicate a little at a time.
Present information in several ways.
Develop a practical, useful way to get feedback.
Use multiple communication techniques.

Memo From CEO to

at 11clock there will be a total eclipse of
the sun. This is when the sun disappears behind
the moon for two minutes. As this is something
that cannot be seen everyday, time will be
allowed for employees to view the eclipse in the
parking lot. Staff should meet in the lot at ten to
eleven, when I will deliver a short speech
introducing the eclipse, and giving some
background information. Safety goggles will be
made available at small cost.

Memo from Manager to

Department Head
Today at ten to eleven, all staff should meet in the
car park. This will be followed by a total eclipse of
the sun, which will appear for two minutes. For a
moderate cost, this will be made safe with
goggles. The CEO will deliver a short speech
beforehand to give us all some information. This
is not something that can be seen every day.

emo from Department Head to

Floor Manager
The CEO will deliver a short speech to make the
sun disappear for two minutes in the form of an
eclipse. This is something that cannot be seen
everyday, so staff will meet in the car park at ten
or eleven. This will be safe if you pay a moderate

Memo from Floor Manager to

Ten or eleven staff are to go in car park, where
the CEO will eclipse the sun for two minutes. This
does not happen everyday. It will be safe, and as
usual it will cost you.

Memo from Supervisor to

Some staff will go to the car park today to see
CEO disappear. It is a pity this doesnt happen

Barriers of
These barriers are physiological, sociological

and psychological obstacles that interfere with

the planning, organization, transmission and
understanding of the message

Language Barrier
If the communicator and the receiver belong

to different language groups, their ignorance

of each others language or the lack of
common language will be a barrier to
communication between them

Semantic Barrier
A word may have a variety of meanings
Example light, cheap, etc. which can be used with

favorable as well as unfavorable connotations

Example: Switch on the light & The cell phone is light

He is so cheap & The price is comparatively


Poor vocabulary
Poor vocabulary does not allow the

communicator to write or speak effectively.

It does not allow the receiver to understand

the message clearly.

If the receiver does not understand the words,

he cannot properly comprehend the


Barriers to Efective

Barriers to effective communication mean the

reasons for a breakdown in communication.

These breakdowns may be for arising due to
Problem with the sender
Problem with the medium
Problem with the receiver
Problem with the feedback

Problem with the sender

The sender may use to technical language or may use

jargons which are difficult to understand.

The sender may speak too quickly which makes it difficult

to interpret what he is saying.

The sender initiates a wrong message.

The message send by the sender may be too long and due

to this the main point to be emphasized may get lost.

The sender may have a wrong opinion or perception of the

receiver and may not put effort to put across the message
in an effective way.

Problem with the

The message may be lost while transmitting.
Using an inappropriate medium may result in the

less effective communication.

A longer channel of communication will result in

distortion of the message and it may lose its original

There is lots of physical disturbances in channel of

communication used.

Problem with the


The receiver might not be paying attention

and thus the message may lose its impact.

In many cases, the sender might not be

trusted by the receiver and may not act in the

intended way.
The receiver may not have the necessary

skills to understand the message.

Problem with the


The feedback may be missing or unclear.

Physical barriers are often due to the
nature of the environment.
Thus, for example, the natural barrier which

exists, if staff are located in different buildings

or on different sites.

System design faults refer

System design faults refer to problems with
the structures or systems in place in an

Organizational structure which is unclear and

therefore makes it confusing to know who to

communicate with.

Attitudinal barriers
Attitudinal barriers come about as a result

of problems with staff in an organization.

Psychological factors
If someone has personal problems like worries

about their health or marriage, then this will

probably affect them.

Diferent languages
Diferent languages and cultures represent
a national barrier which is particularly
important for organizations involved in
overseas business.

Individual linguistic

The use of difficult or inappropriate words in communication

can prevent people from understanding the message.

Poorly explained or

misunderstood messages
can also result in confusion

The linguistic differences

What is the value of this Laptop?
I value our relation?
What is the value of learning technical skills?

Value means different in different

sentences. Communication breakdown occurs

if there is wrong perception by the receiver.

Physiological barriers
Physiological barriers may result from

individuals' personal discomfort, caused, for

example, by ill health, poor eye sight or
hearing difficulties.

Presentation of

Presentation of information is also

important to aid understanding.

Information Overload
Managers are surrounded with a pool of

It is essential to control this information flow

else the information is likely to be

misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked.
As a result communication is less effective.

At times we just not listen, but only hear.
Example Asking query to boss when he is in

hurry or busy in work

Time Pressures
Time pressures increases the stress
Any work which is performed without time pressure

improves quality work

Miss communication due to stress or time pressure

is common problem