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PresentationSlides

for

Chapter3
of

FundamentalsofAtmosphericModeling
2ndEdition
MarkZ.Jacobson
DepartmentofCivil&EnvironmentalEngineering
StanfordUniversity
Stanford,CA943054020
jacobson@stanford.edu
March10,2005

WindSpeedandVelocity
Velocity
Rateatwhichthepositionofabodychangeswithtime

Velocityvector

(3.1)

v =iu+jv+kw

Horizontalvelocityvector

(3.1)

vh =iu+jv
i,j,k

=unitvectorsinx,y,andzdirections

Scalarcomponentsofvelocity

dx
u=
dt

dy
v=
dt

(3.2)

dz
w=
dt

WindSpeed
Windspeed
Magnitudeofvelocityvector

(3.3)

v = u +v +w
Horizontalwindspeed

(3.3)
2

vh = u +v

ZonallyAveragedVelocities
January
100

July
100

40

0
20

Altitude(km)

80

20

Altitude(km)

80

60

60
60

40
Altitude(km)

40

20
20

20
0

20

40
60

60

60

40
Altitude(km)

40
0

80

80 60 40 20

20

40

20
20

30

40

60

30
0

20

40

20

10

0
20

40 60

80 60 40 20

80

20 40 60

80

Latitude

Latitude

Fig.3.1
60

40

20

20

60
40

40

60

20

20

zonUWINJUL

40

60

80

LocalandTotalDifferentiation
Expandtotalderivativewithchainrule

dN N dt N dx N
N
=
+
=
+u
dt
t dt x dt
t
x

Totalderivative.Timerateofchangealongtrajectory

dN
dt

Localderivative.Timerateofchangeatafixedpoint

N
t
Advectionterm.Timerateofchangeduetoadvection

N
u
x

(3.4)

Eulerianvs.Lagrangian
Eulerianframeofreference
Frameofreferenceofapointfixedinspace

N
N
+u
t
x
Lagrangianframeofreference
Frameofreferenceofmovingparcel

dN
dt

Example3.1
Assumeballoontravelingwiththewindfromeasttowest
dN/dt =108 molec.cm3 s 1
N/x =1010molec.cm 3 km 1
u =10ms 1
Findtimerateofchangeinconcentrationatfixedpoint

N dN
N
=
u
t
dt
x
=108

molec.
10m 1010 molec.0.001km =2108 molec.

s
m
cm3 s
cm3 km
cm3 s

GradientOperator
GradientoperatorinCartesianaltitudecoordinates

=i +j +k
x
y
z

(3.6)

Dotproductofvelocityvectorwithgradientoperator (3.7)

v =(iu+jv +kw) i
+j
+k =u +v +w
y
z
x
y
z
x

i i =1

j j =1

k k =1

i j =0

i k =0

j k =0

GradientOperator
Dotproductofgradientoperatorwithvelocityvector
Divergenceterm

(3.8)

u v w
v =i
+j
+k (iu+jv+kw) = + +
y
z
x y z
x
Dotproductofgradientoperatorwithvelocityvectornotsymmetric

v v
Dotproductoftwovectorsissymmetric

av =va

GradientOperator
Productofconcentrationanddivergencetermisscalar (3.9)

u
v
w
N( v) =N
+N
+N
x
y
z
Gradientofascalarisavector

(3.10)

N
N
N
N =i
+j +k N =i
+j
+k
y
z
x
y
z
x
Advectiontermisascalar

(3.11)

N
N
N
(v )N =u
+v +w N =u
+v
+w
y
z
x
y
z
x

GradientOperator
Totalderivativeofscalarconcentration

(3.12)

dN N
N
N
N N
=
+u
+v
+w
=
+(v )N
dt
t
x
y
z
t
Advectionterm

(3.11)

N
N
N
(v )N =u
+v +w N =u
+v
+w
y
z
x
y
z
x
Generalizedandexpandedformoftotalderivative

(3.13)

= +u +v +w = +v
dt t
x
y
z t

ScalarContinuityEquation

u1N
1
z

u2N
2
x

Accumulation=inflowminusoutflow
Nxyz =u1N1yzt u2N2yzt
#

cm #
cm #
(
cm
)
(
cm
)
(
cm
)
=
(
cm
)
(
cm
)
(
s
)

3
3
3 (cm)(cm)(s)
s
s
cm
cm
cm

(3.14)

ScalarContinuityEquation
Accumulation=inflowminusoutflow
Nxyz =u1N1yzt u2N2yzt

(3.14)

Dividebothsidesbytandboxvolume(xyz)

(3.15)

N
u2N2 u1N1

t
x
Lett,x>0
Fluxdivergenceformofcontinuityequation

(3.16)

N
(uN)
=
t
x

ScalarContinuityEquation
Fluxdivergenceformofcontinuityequationin3D
(3.17)
N
(uN) (vN) (wN)
=

=(vN )
t
x
y
z
Expandwithchainrule

(3.18)

Fromdefinitionoftotalderivative

(3.21)

(vN) =N ( v) +(v )N
dN N
(v )N =

dt
t

Substitute(3.21)into(3.18)

N
dN N
=N( v) (v )N =N( v)
+
t
dt
t

>Velocitydivergencecontinuityequation(andforair)(3.22,3)
dN
da
=N( v)
=a( v)

dt

dt

MixingRatioContinuityEquation
Numberconc.asfunctionofmoistairmixingratio
Aaq
N=

(3.24)

Substituteintocontinuityequationfornumberconc.

(3.19)

N
=N( v) (v )N
t

toobtain
(3.25)
q
a

q
+a ( v) +(v )a +a
=a(v )q
t

t
Notethat

a
+a( v) +(v )a =0
t

>Continuityequationformoistairmassmixingratio(3.26)

q
=(v )q
t

Compressible/Incompressible
Compressiblefluid
Volumeofanairorwaterparcelchangesovertime

u v w
v = + +
0
x y z
Incompressiblefluid
(3.27)
Volumeofanairorwaterparcelisconstantovertime

u v w
+ + =0
x y z
Densityofincompressiblefluidconstantalongmotion (3.28)

dw w
=
+(v )w =w( v) =0
dt
t

Densityofincompressiblefluidchangesatfixedpoint (3.29)

w
=v
(
)w
t

ExpandedContinuityEquation
Expandedcontinuityequation
Ne,t
N
2
=(vN ) +D N +
Rn
t

(3.30)

n=1

Substitute

(3.31)


2
N =( )N =i
+j
+k i
+j +k N
y
z x
y
z
x

2N

2N 2N
= 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
toobtain

(3.32)

e,t
2 N 2 N 2 N
N (uN) (vN) (wN)
+
+
+
=D 2 + 2 + 2 +
Rn
t
x
y
z
y
z n=1
x

ReynoldsAveraging
Fig.3.3.Precise,mean,andperturbationcomponentsofscalarvelocityandnumberconcentration

u
u_
_
N
N

u'
N
'

Precisegasconcentration

(3.33)

N =N + N
Timeandgridvolumeaverageconcentration

(3.34)

t+t x+x y+y z+z


1
N=

Ndz dydxdt

txyz t
z

y
x

ExpandedContinuityEquation
Expandedcontinuityequation

(3.32)
Ne,t
2
2
2

N (uN) (vN) (wN)


N N N
+
+
+
=D 2 + 2 + 2 +
Rn
t
x
y
z
y
z n=1
x

Substitutepreciseconcentrationsandvelocitiesandeliminatezeroterms (3.40)

N (uN ) (vN ) (wN ) u N vN wN


+
+
+
+
+
+
t
x
y
z
x
y
z
N

e,t
2 N 2N 2 N
=D 2 + 2 + 2 +
Rn
y
z n=1
x

ExpandedContinuityEquation
Turbulentdiffusion>>moleculardiffusion>

(3.41)

Ne,t

u
N

v
N

w
N
N
( )
( )
(
) u N vN wN
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
Rn
t
x
y
z
x
y
z

n=1

Numberconc.continuityequationinvectornotation

N
+ (vN ) + (v N ) =
t

Ne,t

(3.42)

Rn

n=1

Continuityequationforairinvectornotation

a
+ (va ) + (v a ) =0
t

(3.43)

MixingRatioContinuityEquation
Moistairmassmixingratiocontinuityequation

(3.44)

Ne,t

q
+vq = Rn
t
n=1

Continuityequationforair

(3.20)

Sumcontinuityequations
N e,t
(aq)
+ (avq) =a
Rn
t

(3.45)

a
=a( v) (v )a
t

n=1

ContinuityequationafterReynoldsaveraging N
(3.49)
e,t
q
1
+(v )q + (a vq ) =
Rn
t
a

n=1

Ktheory
Relatesturbulentfluxesofoneparametertothegradientofthemeanvalueoftheparameter

Kinematicturbulentfluxterms
N
N
uN =K h,xx
vN =Kh,yy
x
y

(3.50)

N
wN =K h,zz
z

K=eddydiffusioncoefficientforenergy(cm 2s1)
Substituteintocontinuityequation
(3.49)
N (uN ) (vN ) (wN )
N
N
+
+
+
= K h,xx
+ K h,yy

t
x
y
z
x
x y
y
Ne,t


N
+ K h,zz
+
z
z

Rn

n=1

GasContinuityEquation
Continuityequationforgasconcentration
Ne,t
N
+ (vN) =( K h )N +
Rn
t

(3.52)

Continuityequationformoistairmassmixingratio

(3.54)

n=1

Ne,t

q
1
+(v )q = ( aK h )q +
t
a
Eddydiffusiontensor

K h,xx
0
0

K h = 0
K h,yy
0

0
K h,zz
0

Rn

n=1

(3.53)

ContinuityEquations
Expandedcontinuityequationforgasconcentration

Nq
t

(3.56)

+ (vNq ) =( Kh )Nq

+Remisg+Rdepg+Rwashg+Rchemg

+Rnucg+Rc eg +Rdp sg +Rdseg +Rhrg

Continuityequationforair
(3.55)
Ignoreturbulentfluxdivergenceandexternalsource/sinkterms

a
+ (va ) =0
t

ParticleContinuityEquation
Continuityequationforparticlenumberconcentration (3.58)

ni
+ (vni ) =( K h )ni
t
+Remisn+Rdepn+Rsedn+Rwashn+Rnucn+Rcoagn
Volumeconcentration

vq,i =ni q,i

(3.57)

Continuityequationforparticlevolumeconcentration (3.59)

vq,i

+ (vvq,i ) =( Kh )vq,i

t
+Remisv+Rdepv+Rsedv+Rwashv+Rnucv+Rcoagv

+Rc ev +Rdp sv+Rdsev +Reqv+Raqv+Rhrv

WaterContinuityEquation
Continuityequationforwatervapor
qv
1
+(v )qv = (aKh)qv
t
a

(3.61)

+RemisV+RdepV+RchemV+Rc eV +Rdp sV
Continuityequationforliquidwater
qL,i
1
+(v )q L,i =
(aK h )qL,i
t
a

(3.62)

+RemisL+RdepL+RsedL+RcoagL+Rc eL +Rf mL
Continuityequationforice
(3.63)
qI ,i
1
+(v )qI,i = (aK h )q I,i
t
a
+RdepI+RsedI +RcoagI+R f mI +Rdp sI

Bulkvs.SizeResolved
Sizeresolvedtreatmentofwater
NB

qT =qv + (qL,i +qI ,i )


i=1

Bulktreatmentofwater

qT =qv +qL +qI

(3.60)

ThermodynamicEnergyEquation
Firstlawofthermodynamics

dQcp,ddTv adpa
Differentiatewithrespecttotime,substitutea=1/a (3.64)
Thermodynamicenergyequationintermsoftemperaturealonglineofmotionofparcel

dTv
1 dQ
1 dpa

+
dt
cp,d dt c p,da dt
Timerateofchangeoftemperatureinaparcelisaffectedbydiabaticsources/sinksandadiabatic
expansion/contraction

(2.82)

ThermodynamicEnergyEquation
Differentiatev=Tv(1000hPa/pa)
(3.65)

1
1000
dv dTv 1000
1000 dpa
=
2

+Tv

dt
dt pa
pa
pa dt

v dTv v dpa
=

Tv dt
pa dt
Thermodynamicenergyequation
dTv
1 dQ
1 dpa

+
dt
cp,d dt c p,da dt
SubstitutedTv/dtfrom(3.65)into(3.64)

dv v
v dQ
=
+(v )v
dt
t
cp,dTv dt

(3.64)

(3.66)

ThermodynamicEnergyEquation
dv v
v dQ
Multiply
=
+(v )v
dt
t
c p,dTv dt

by c p,da

a
Multiply
+ (va) =0 by cp,dv
t
Sumtheresult
(cp,dav )

(3.67)

v dQ
+ (vcp,dav) a
Tv dt

Defineenergydensity(Jm3)

E =cp,dav

Substituteinto(3.67)

E
v dQ
+ (vE) a
t
Tv dt

(3.73)

ThermodynamicEnergyEquation
Decomposevariables(assumeasmall)

a a
PerformReynoldsaveraging
Thermodynamicenergyequation

v =v +v

(3.60)

v =v +v

(3.70)

v
1
v dQ
+(v )v + (avv) =
t
a
cp,d Tv dt
Turbulentfluxdivergenceterms

v
uv =K h,xx
x

(3.73)

v
v v =K h,yy
y

v
wv =K h,zz
z

ThermodynamicEnergyEquation
Turbulentfluxdivergencetensor

(3.60)

vv =Kh v
Thermodynamicenergyequationturbulencetensor
(3.74)
v
1
v dQ
+(v )v = ( aK h )v +
t
a
c p,dTv dt
Expanddiabaticsource/sinkterm

(3.75,6)
Ne,h

v
1
v
+(v )v = ( aK h )v +
t
a
c p,dTv
dQ
=
dt

Ne,h

n=1

n=1

dQn
dt

dQn dQc e dQf m dQdp s dQsolar dQir


=
+
+
+
+
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt