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POPULATION ECOLOGY

Population ecology

The study of the relationship between:

Different population
Populations and the environment

POPULATION
SIZE
: number of
individuals
making up the
populations

Characteristic
s of a
population
POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION:
General pattern in
which the
population
number generally
distributed

POPULATION
DENSITY :
number of
individuals per
unit area / volume

Characteristics of a population

POPULATION SIZE :

POPULATION DENSITY :

number of individuals making up the populations

number of individuals per unit area / volume

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION :

general pattern in which the population number are


distributed in the habitat

Estimating population size

Plants:

By the quadrat sampling technique

Animals :

By the capture, mark, release & recapture


technique

THE QUADRAT SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Used in estimating the size of plant population


and immobile animal.
A quadrat metal, wooden frame or PVC pipe
frame which form a square of a known area (1
m2).
Placed randomly in an ecosystem where
sampling is carried out.

The quadrat sampling technique

The quadrat sampling technique


Used to determine:
(a) Frequency number of times a particular
species is found present when a quadrat
is thrown a certain number of time

The quadrat sampling technique


(b) Density the mean number of individuals
of species per unit area

The quadrat sampling technique


(c) Percentage coverage an indication of
how much the area of quadrat is
occupied by a species

The capture, mark, release and recapture


technique

1.
2.
3.
4.

Used to estimate mobile animals (small


mammals, butterflies, birds and insects)
Procedure:
Animal sample is captured
Marked
Released
Second sample captured & number of
marked animal recorded.

The capture, mark, release and recapture


technique

Population size of the animal in the area


can be estimated using the formula below:

REVISION

The capture ,mark, release, and recapture technique

Non toxic permanent marker

The mark must not be lost and must not inhibit normal body
activities
The mark does not prevent the rat from randomly mixing with
the other unmarked rats

Population = (100 x 140) /40


= 350 rats

To give sufficient time for the random dispersal and mixing


among the rats in the population

Increase in number of the rats due to increase in birth rate


Decrease in number of the rats due to death of old rats,
diseases or eaten by predators
Migration (immigration or emigration) of the rats