Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

Data Processing

Definition
Data - collection of numbers, characters or facts

that are gathered according to some perceived need


for analysis and possibly action at a later point in
time.
Database organized collection of related data.

*The possibility of finding info in the database


depends on:
How the data are named and organized
The size and complexity of the database
The type of data within the database
The methodology or tools used to search the database

Types of Data
Computer-Based Data Types
Alphanumeric data which includes letters and numbers in
any combination.
This is used to build the physical database within the
computer system.
E.g., social security number, date and time, patient ID
number
Conceptual Data Types
Reflect how users view the data.
Data are classified in terms of how these data will be used
by the user.
Source of Data: Image data produced by the x-ray
department
Event: assessment data, intervention data, outcome data

Database Management Systems


Computer programs used to input, store, modify,

process and access data in a database.


Three Interacting Parts:
Data
DBMS configured software program
Query language
Manual Database Mgt System
Index and query language are usually in the users
mind, therefore there might be problems storing and
finding data

Automated Database Mgt


Systems
Advantages:
Decrease data redundancy*
Increase data consistency
Improve access to all data

*Data Redundancy occurs when same data are


stored in the database more than once.

Fields, Records and Files


Patient
ID

LAST NAME

FIRST NAME

MIDDLE
NAME

0001

RIZAL

JOSEPH

PACQUIAO

0002

BONIFACIO

ANDREW

MAYWEATHER

0003

MABINI

APOLLO

CLOTTEY

0004

SILANG

GEORGE

COTTO

0005

AQUINO

MEL

MARQUEZ

Field

Field
Field
Name
Primary Attribute
File
Identifier
Database
collection of files

Recor
d

Types of Files
Processing files tells the computer on how data
are to be processed.
Executable files consists of a computer program

or set of instructions that, when executed, causes


the computer to open or start a specific computer
program or function. It ends with the extension .EXE
Command Files - set of instructions that perform a

set of functions as opposed to running a whole


program.
E.g., Batch Files (.BAT) that contain a set of
operating system commads.

Types of Files
Data files contain data that have been captured

and stored on a computer using a software program.


Examples:
files with the extension of .DOC
Files with the extension of .PDF

Database Models
Conceptual Model
Includes a diagram and narrative description of the
data elements, their attributes, and the relationship
between the data.
It defines the structure of the whole database in

terms of the attributes of the data elements,


relationships, constraints and operation.

Conceptual Model
One-to-One Relationship

Amoxicilli
Individual
n 500 mg

Medicatio
q8o x 10
n Order
days

Individua
Mommy
lDionisia
Patient

Conceptual Model
One-to-Many Relationship

Medication
Order
Medication
Name
Dose
FREQUENCY
Route

Medication
Admin
Medication
Name
Dose
TIME
Route

Conceptual Model
One-to-Many Relationship

Dose
1

Amoxicillin 500
mg q 80 x 10
days
Dose
2

Dose
3

Dose
30

Structural or Physical Data


Models
Includes each of the data elements and the

relationship between the data elements, as they will


be physically stored on the computer.
Four Primary Approaches :
Hierarchical
Network
Relational
Object-Oriented

Structural or Physical Data


Models
Hierarchical
Effective at representing one-to-many relationships.
Disadvantages : Many data relationships do not fit

the one-to-may models; if data relationships


change, this can require significant redesign of the
database due to the presence of multiple links.

Structural or Physical Data


Models
Hierarchical

Structural or Physical Data


Models
Network Model
Developed from hierarchical models.
The child node is not limited to one parent node.
Advantage: supports many-to-many relationships
Disadvantage: if data relationships change, this can

require significant redesign of the database due to


the presence of multiple links.

Structural or Physical Data


Models
Relational Database Models
Consists of a series of files set up as tables.
Disadvantage: since datum needs to be broken

down into its smaller format, the relationships


represented are linear an only relate one data
elements to another.

Structural or Physical Data


Models
Relational Database Models
Patient
ID

LAST NAME

FIRST NAME

MIDDLE
NAME

0001

RIZAL

JOSEPH

PACQUIAO

0002

BONIFACIO

ANDREW

MAYWEATHER

0003

MABINI

APOLLO

CLOTTEY

Patient
ID

Diagnosis 1

Diagnosis 2

Diagnosis 3

0001

MI

CVA

PVD

0002

CVA

Hepatitis C

UTI

0003

DM

Angina

CVA

Structural or Physical Data


Models
Object-Oriented Models
Handles binary large objects such as images,

sounds, spreadsheets or text messages.


The entity as well as attributes of the entity are

stored with the object.